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(a) In testing hypotheses, which of the following would be strong evidence against the null hypothesis?
A. Obtaining data with a small P -value.
B. Using a large level of significance.
C. Obtaining data with a large P -value.
D. Using a small level of significance.
(b) In formulating hypotheses for a statistical test of significance, the null hypothesis is often
A. a statement of ''no effect'' or ''no difference''.
B. a statement that the data are all 0.
C. the probability of observing the data you actually obtained
(c) The P -value of a test of a null hypothesis is
A. the probability the null hypothesis is true.
B. the probability the null hypothesis is false.
C. the probability, assuming the null hypothesis is true, that the test statistic will take a value at least as extreme as that actually observed.
D. the probability, assuming the null hypothesis is false, that the test statistic will take a value at least as extreme as that actually observed.
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