Could gravity, electromagnetic force, strong force and weak force once be originated from the one same force in the beginning ?
- nebLv 72 months ago
In the standard model of physics, electromagnetism and the weak force have already been unified into the electroweak force. The electroweak force was ‘broken’ by the symmetry breaking of the Higgs field shortly after the Big Bang, splitting the electroweak force into the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces we see today
The strong nuclear force can be unified with the electroweak force using the same approach as was done with the electroweak force - gauge symmetries. This is basically the idea that the various force bosons can be ‘mixed’ in certain combinations that adhere to certain types of rotational symmetries in a complex valued ‘internal space’. All of those combinations result in the same observable physics.
The exact symmetries required to unify the strong force with the electroweak (called a GUT theory) have no experimental evidence to support them so we don’t know yet what that symmetry is. The simplest that would work predicts the decay of free protons after around 10^30 years but that seems to have been ruled out by experiment (amazing that an experiment like that can be done). We also don’t know what broke the GUT symmetry that peeled the strong force off the electroweak force.
Gravity appears to be the odd man out. While most physicists believe that gravity can be unified with the GUT force, it cant be done with the same approach as the other unifications. It may even be that it simply can’t unified with the other three because they are not related.