mary asked in Arts & HumanitiesHistory · 2 months ago

How do you compare and contrast the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta? What is the Peloponnesian Wars?

5 Answers

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  • 2 months ago

    Athens and Sparta were both Hellenic, but of of different sub-Hellenic groups: Athens (Attic)Ionian and Sparta Doric. Sparta had a monarchical republic in which two co-kings ruled alongside a council of elders and magistrates. Athens was more democratic with most magisterial offices open to the citizenry on an annual rotation, a larger council of elders, and the full citizenry participant in an active assembly. Spartan culture was limited and mainly focused on military affairs. Athens on the other hand was very sophisticated. Athenian arts included poetry, theatre, sculpture and architecture, and philosophical pursuits. Economically Sparta was limited to local agriculture and the serfdom of their subjugated labour class. Athens was much more dependent on commerce and had numerous emporia colonized throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

    The Peloponnesian War, much like the modern Cold War, was a result of conflicting ideologies and expanding super powers. After the Persian Wars Athens and Sparta were the top dogs in Greece and began flexing their own hegemony. Sparta took over much of the Peloponnese, while Athens formed a defensive league against any future Persian invasion. This league was made up of Aegean islanders and the funds were kept on the island of Delos, therefore it is known as the Delian League. Athens, as the strongest member and initiator of the League, oversaw the collection of funds and military organization of all the members. Eventually, Athens seized absolute control of the League and moved its treasury to Athens where the funds were used for the Athenians’ exclusive benefit. Furthermore, any League members who withdrew or failed to dole out their share of funds or soldiers were harshly punished by the Athenian enforcers. Basically, Athens had used the excuse of the Delian League to create its own little empire to which Sparta, the previous claimant of supreme power in Greece, felt threatened.  

  • JuanB
    Lv 7
    2 months ago

    You would point out how the 2 are the same and how they are different.

  • Anonymous
    2 months ago

    By examining the populations, geography and political bodies of both.

  • gerald
    Lv 7
    2 months ago

    Greece had several states there was Macedonia where Alexander the Great came from and they were always struggling to be the superior power and Alexander did just that , Athens was the heart and created the democracy we enjoy now and Sparta was a war like state that was dedicated to military control and was noted for its disciplin and bravoury in battle and was feared greatly , i believe the wars were these battles among the Greeks there were other battles for  the Greek empire Alexander left against  the Romans later i dont use Google so cannot be precise but you can and you know what to look for now 

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  • ?
    Lv 4
    2 months ago

    Greece had been invaded and colonised by foreigners dating back to the Dorian invasion, and before.

    The earliest invasion likely occured in response to the Kaska revolt.

    Though some would argue that the Hitttites setting up base in Anatolia 1600 BC, was an assault on Greece.

    This all led to the peoples of Athens and Sparta not even being from the same ethnic stock as eachother, and a tug of war ensued.

    And different times and periods who the aristocrats of Sparta or Athens were, changed depending upon who was winning.

    "The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC)[2] was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse, Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force in 413 BC. This ushered in the final phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War, or the Ionian War. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from the Achaemenid Empire".

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnesian_War .

    Now in order to attempt to help one understand who is who, we first look to the above and we see that the Spartans were receiving support from the Achaemenid empire.

    And from below, we see that the Achaemenids were coming under attack from the Delian league which opposed the Achaemenids.

    "The Delian League, founded in 478 BC,[1] was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330[2][3][4] under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern[5] name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture,[6] Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.[7]".

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire .

    Therefore, we can work out from this, that the Achaemenid empire are persians, and are pretty much the same peoples that had been fighting with Greece all the way back to a time when they were called Hittites.

    "The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/; Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐏂, romanized: Xšāça, lit. 'The Empire'), also called the First Persian Empire,[16] was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history".

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire .

    And no citation is required for who the Delians must be, unless one has a revelation they would like to reveal, such as Greece being the location of not one but "two" opposing invading forces fighting eachother?!.

    In the instance this revelation is not forthcoming, then the people in control of Athens would be the Messenians.

    They are pretty much the ancestors of Alexander the Great who will be appearing in our history books quite shortly to destroy the Achaemenid empire.

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