why did the British East India Company supercede the Dutch East India Co.? why the Netherlands fell out of importance/favor with who?
- MoriartyLv 72 months agoFavorite Answer
There were a number of factors, but the slow change of dominance between the two companies began in 1688, when the Dutch stadtholder and Prince of Orange, William III, also became King William III of England (with his wife Mary II, the actual heir to the crown, but who insisted upon England's only joint monarchy).
This led William to open up trade routes and Dutch ports in the East Indies to English merchants for them to use as stopping off points in forming their own trade colonies. Also, being a staunch Protestant, William's main concern as Prince of Orange had been to get the English on his side against Catholic France. Now as King of England he gave special privileges to the Royal Navy, spent a fortune on expanding it and ordered that any Anglo-Dutch fleet be under English command, with the Dutch navy having 60% of the strength of the English, all to ensure their loyalty and co-operation.
Five years after William's death, the formal union between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland had took place in 1707, with the new and more powerful Kingdom of Great Britain being governed by the London based Parliament. This new British state increasingly became the dominant military and economic force. The Dutch merchant elite began to use London as a new operational base and Dutch economic growth slowed. From about 1720 Dutch wealth ceased to grow at all; around 1780 the per capita gross national product of the Kingdom of Great Britain surpassed that of the Dutch. Whereas in the 17th century the commercial success of the Dutch had inspired English jealousy and admiration, in the late 18th century the growth of British power, and the concurrent loss of Amsterdam's preeminence, led to Dutch resentment.
This resentment made the Dutch and their East India Co. begin to actively support those who opposed the British, especially the rebellious American colonies whom they supplied with arms and cash. This, ironically, led the Dutch to become allies in all but name with the French who were taking an even more active role in this conflict. Consequently, the British attacked and captured many Dutch colonies in the East Indies and blockaded Dutch ports in European waters. This resulted in severe financial loss for the Dutch East India Co and to keep themselves afloat they began "cooking the books". This played into the hands of the more corrupt Dutch company officials who began skimming cash off what little profit the company gleaned.
At the conclusion of the British and American conflict and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, what became known as the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War proved a disaster for the Dutch. With no real powerful ally to back them, with the French not supporting them in any way, this put them into an untenable position when the French and their allies went ahead with the signing of the general peace. The British gained the right of free trade with part of the Dutch East Indies, which had been a major war aim for British merchants. The French also returned other Dutch colonies they had recaptured from the British, including the ones in the West Indies, to the British and not the Dutch. All of which shrank the DEIC trading power and profits once again, leaving it on very shaky ground.
Finally, after the French revolution in 1789 and this new republic's invasion of the Netherlands and occupation of Amsterdam in 1795, the DEIC was nationalised on March 1st 1796 by the new Batavian Republic, and its charter was allowed to expire on December 31st 1799. Riddled with debt and corruption it was practically on it's knees anyway. Most of the DEIC’s Asian possessions were ceded to the British after the defeat of Napoleon, and the British East India Company took over the DEIC’s infrastructure, making it and the British the most powerful economic trading force in the world.
- ExpatLv 62 months ago
The British East Indies Co. was a powerful aspect of the British Empire due to their control of India and Hong Kong. The Dutch East Indies was related to Holland’s control of Indonesia as well as some areas in India. The Java war and the Padri war along with the loss of Belgium brought the Netherlands to near bankruptcy in 1930. England maintained their hold on India until 1947.
- ArmourorLv 42 months ago
British East India Company were a British Company that Helped the British Coloniose the world for the British
Dutch East India Co did the Same for the Dutch