Concerning Mitosis: Why is it essential that every cell in an organism be genetically identical?

When it comes to Meiosis:

Why does a sperm and egg have to combine to produce a human baby in terms of chromosome number?

---

Why is the # of chromosomes in a gamete significant in fertilization?

--------

How does the # of chromosomes in a gamete compare to normal body cells?

Update:

Why is it essential that every cell in an organism be genetically identical?

3 Answers

Relevance
  • 4 weeks ago
    Favorite Answer

    Imagine each cell in your body like a builder who is part of a team of builders that need to work together to build a house (you, the organism). However, for the most part, they cannot communicate with each other. So what they work with is instructions (the genome), which are given to each of them from conception. These instructions need to be identical if they are all to contribute to the larger project in a productive way. If one group of builders have different instructions to the rest, this could cause poor integration of their constructed section of house with the larger project (e.g. a tumour). However making the same thing again and again, generation after generation makes a species not very adaptable to new environmental challenges. Meiosis is a means of mixing things up, trying something new to see if it works better. 

    Sperm and ova must combine to produce a zygote with an adequate number of chromatids. The sperm has 23, as does the ovum. A human requires 46 to be properly functional. Each gamete contributes half of the required amount. 

    • Login to reply the answers
  • 4 weeks ago

    Because if it doesn't make an exact copy, then that means there's an error in there.

    A gamete has half as many chromosomes as a normal cell.

    You can't change the chromosome number. Each human has 23 pairs. Each

    sex cell, sperm and egg contribute half. There's no manage a trois when it

    comes to making a baby.

    • smart4 weeks agoReport

      Thanks for the answer sparrow!

    • Login to reply the answers
  • 4 weeks ago

    > Concerning Mitosis: Why is it essential that every cell in an organism be genetically identical?

    It isn't.  The problem is that differentiated cells have no good way of evicting the DNA that they won't be using.  Your teacher is not very good.

    > When it comes to Meiosis:Why does a sperm and egg have to combine to produce a human baby in terms of chromosome number?

    Uh, the combining is "fertilization," not "meiosis."

    Can you think of some other way to produce a human baby other than through fertilization?  Actually, I can (embryo breaks and twinning occurs;  cloning via the method that was used to produce a macaque clone in 2018) so this question is not very good.  Your teacher is not very good.

    > Why is the # of chromosomes in a gamete significant in fertilization?

    Uh, not significant which is how your gametes have 23 chromosomes and a dog's gametes have 39.

    We have a survivable monosomy (Turner Syndrome) and several survivable trisomies (47,XXX ; 47,XXY ; 47,XYY ), so apparently the number of chromosomes in a gamete isn't particularly significant.

    Your teacher wants you to say that the chromosomes in the two gametes have to total in the zygote to be a full diploid set to have a good, normal, outcome.  Well, 47,XYY and 47,XXX are generally normal except for the fellow doing the karyogramming making a note of it.

    Your teacher is not very good.

    > How does the # of chromosomes in a gamete compare to normal body cells?

    For us typical diploid organisms, the number of chromosomes in a gamete is half that of the number in a normal body cell.

    Your answer will be different if you are any of certain insects.

    You're not an insect, right?

    • sparrow
      Lv 7
      4 weeks agoReport

      Before they differentiate, they make exact copies.

    • Login to reply the answers
Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.