Biology Math Questions?
1. A triglyceride fat is composed of three fatty acids that are 16 carbons long. The fat is broken down to glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is modified to glyceraldehyde−3−phosphate and enters glycolysis. The fatty acyl tails have two carbon acetyl units removed at a time, which then enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl-CoA. How many turns of the citric acid cycle are required to completely oxidize this triglyceride fat to CO2?
2. In addition to glucose, many other carbohydrates can be broken down through the process of aerobic respiration and fermentation. For example, in the liver, two molecules of ATP are hydrolyzed in a series of steps that convert fructose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde−3−phosphate. Galactose can be converted into fructose−1,6−bisphosphate at the expense of two molecules of ATP. With this is mind, calculate the total number of ATP molecules that can be harnessed from a molecule of fructose through the process of cellular respiration.
Assume that each molecule of NADH yields 2.5 ATP and each molecule of FADH2 yields 1.5 ATP. Also assume that GTP transfers its phosphate group to ADP, thereby forming ATP.
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