The term for both genders of dogs, is neuter. Males are castrated, females spayed.
I am not a huge fan of castrating males other than for medical need and I certainly wouldn't have it done until the growth plates can be assumed to have closed - not under 1 year. If you wait, that should give you time to decide FOR YOURSELF whether castration is needed. It is surgery/with recovery, however simple (apart from an undescended testicle castration which is more invasive - akin to a spay).
As a result of my feelings about this surgery, we only had a couple of oldies neutered for medical need and I regretted having to have it done - they became overly 'soft' (lacked any former zip they had), grew heavier coats and tended to put on weight (partly because of the reduced need for activity!).
Provided the dog is properly contained so he can't go roaming the neighbourhood being a nuisance to anybody with an in-season b itch, he DOESN'T NEED to be castrated. Normally. None of our entire males had any male-related problems in their entire lives, other than the couple I had to have neutered for that reason. And contrary to common belief, castration should not be seen as a cure-all. All it will do is prevent unwanted litters - which again provided the dog isn't allowed to roam, shouldn't ever happen.
I spayed my retired bitches - partly to avoid having to confine them twice a year (well 8 months with most of mine) for 3 weeks, and also to reduce the agro to my entire males. And it avoided the hormonal changes continuially happening with coming into, and out of season. But again, please make up your own mind about this. And don't get confused about the conflicting info. re health problems with entire males. Most dogs live perfectly happy and long lives, without the need for castration.