Not a chance in hell. One traffic violation during the test is usually an automatic fail, and driving without proper documents (including your licence / permit) is a traffic violation.
Go to the DMV (or whatever the DMV is called where you live), tell them you lost your original permit, and they'll print a new one for you. You'll have to fill out a form and pay a fee, because they do love their forms and fees, but you'll walk out with a valid copy of your permit that very same day. Nobody will even look at you funny, because they do 20 or 40 of those a day.
Seriously, how have you not googled "lost / stolen permit replacement" on your own?