Can someone explain the general structure and definitions for all programming languages?

I'm currently learning python and so far have dealt with 3 kinds of data types, what functions are in python and calling functions, if and else statements and yeah other things I don't remember, please help! Also am I better off switching to a type of C language if I want to develop windows based... show more I'm currently learning python and so far have dealt with 3 kinds of data types, what functions are in python and calling functions, if and else statements and yeah other things I don't remember, please help!

Also am I better off switching to a type of C language if I want to develop windows based software

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Update 2: Can you explain the general structure and definitions that all programming languages have? Like data types and functions but others call it method I think not sure, I remember reading that somewhere... I want like a framework I can put on a word document so I can refer to it when learning a new language. I am using... show more Can you explain the general structure and definitions that all programming languages have? Like data types and functions but others call it method I think not sure, I remember reading that somewhere... I want like a framework I can put on a word document so I can refer to it when learning a new language. I am using Python to learn programming but I hear performance wise C is most efficient so I am thinking I make the change to that after I learn how to program first.
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