Had implies the past, some time ago; something finished or possibly an unmemorable event.
"I had been there as a teenager, but not since."
Have implies recent, ongoing or unfinished, something that may be repeated or continued;
What were you doing over the weekend? I have been painting the house.
Using "had" in that would imply you were forced to stop and do something else instead, rather than finishing.
I had been painting the house, until the thunderstorm started.
Or, concentrating on the have/had difference:
I had one of those toys when I was little. (Had - past, no longer true)
I have one of those toys, it's a collectors item now. (Have - still true)
There is a lot of overlap between the two & in some cases they may be interchangeable, but in some other contexts one one or the other fits.