You are misinformed. Animals court one another in almost all cases. Usually it is the male that is doing the courtship and females can either reject or accept the courtship. For example, a frog will sing to attract females. It is up to the female whether she will approach the male to start mating. Similarly, a male lizard may court a female and no mating will happen if the female refuses to mate. In some cases, it is the female that initiates courtship. In these cases, it is the male that cares for the eggs, instead of the female. The red phalarope is a bird in which the male will incubate the egg and cares for the young, but the female takes no part in rearing the young birds. The female in this case approaches the male and courts him. She certainly cannot rape him.
Of course there are cases of rape in the animal kingdom. For example, the male elephant seal is so big that the male can sneak into another male's territory and have sex with a female without her consent. Male ducks are known to rape females. Most birds lack a penis, but ducks are some of the exceptions. They can have sex but forcibly inverting their penis into a female. Female ducks usually pair up with a male and the male with guard her to prevent rape. If the male fails to do his job, the female will leave him.
In fact, in nature most species only mate during a short period of time every year. The females are only receptive to male courtship when they are ovulating. In some cases, females may not mate until their young have been weaned and it may take years. During that time, even if a male risks his life to rape a female, it does not benefit him because the female does not have any eggs that can be fertilized. Risking one's life (because females are often as strong and dangerous as the males) for a moment of pleasure is not what evolution favors. Evolution instead only favors behavior that results in an increase in fitness (defined as the number of offspring one produces that will grow up to reproduce).
So, how are humans different from other animals? Humans are different because females can become pregnant again soon after giving birth. Humans have menstrual cycles, so that a female can become pregnant in any of the 12th months of the year, instead of just once a year in many cases. Therefore male humans can benefit by being ready to mate at any time. He can become a father (and therefore become successful in terms of evolution) any time he mates. Humans in fact evolved to have sex frequently, unlike most animals, which are only interested in mating once a year or even less frequently in most cases.
Because human males have such strong sex drives, they can become sexually frustrated easily. Is so, then was rape common among prehistoric humans? That is probably unlikely. We can see evidence for this by examining human anatomy. Humans have the longest penis of any primate both in terms of absolute length and length in proportion to body size. Gorillas are a lot bigger but its penis is only an inch and a half long. Why do humans need such a long penis?
If we look at gorillas, the males use brute strength to exclude other males from his harem of females. He does not use brute strength to force his females to mate with him. In contrast the chimpanzee, although smaller in size, has a penis that is more than twice as long as that of the gorilla. The reason is that chimps live in social groups with many males, and the males cooperate with each other to defend the troop's territory. To promote such cooperation, male chimps do NOT fight among themselves for the right to mate. If all males can mate with the same females, then what can one increase one's chance of fathering the next generation? How about a penis that can put sperm as close to the uterus as possible? That is why the chimp needs a longer penis than the gorilla.
If humans have an even longer penis than the chimp. then what does that tell us? We probably need it so that we can put sperms closer to the uterus than those that are already inside a female. If that is the case, it means that males can have sex frequently, and females are receptive to having sex too, if they will do it with many males. If so, then why do modern humans rape? The reason is that females have become less receptive to mating than prehistoric ones? Why? Because humans have evolved to be monogamous, even though we were more promiscuous in the ancient past.
The reason is that humans no longer live in groups with multiple males under the same roof since we invented agriculture and settled down. Human males also provide parental care, such as food, shelter and education. To make sure that such care is not wasted on someone who are not their own children, human males now demand monogamy. Not only do male humans not allow other males to have sex with their wives, they do not allow their daughters to have sex either, because a pregnant daughter's baby also need food shelter and care. Their daughter's chance of getting married also decreases, and that means a man may be stuck with a daughter with a baby for a long time. Because humans are now a lot less likely to get sex without marriage, rape has therefore become more common. The sex drive remains, but the opportunity to have sex has greatly reduced, even after the sexual revolution made premarital sex more common and acceptable. Ancient people probably did not have to rape if they can have sex at any time with willing and receptive females within their own social groups.
· 4 weeks ago