The countries that you're asking about have traditionally been agrarian societies that have only become developed countries in the very recent past. In under-developed and developing countries, the birth rate is usually far higher than it is in developed countries because more children means more hands for working the land or more bodies that can be put to work to earn a salary that will contribute to the collective household income.
The demographics of the three countries have changed dramatically in the past few decades. China has more than 100 cities that have a population of 1 million people or greater. India is home to some of the largest urban agglomerations in the world. And Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Traffic, congestion and overcrowding have become so much of an issue that Indonesia has begun to look into relocating the capital to Borneo.
When a country has a high birth rate, that negates things like a higher mortality rate and a lower life expectancy. 35 people are born in India every minute. 2,100 are born every hour. 50,400 are born every day. The population increases by over 18 million people every year. The number of people dying is only a fraction of that number - less than a third.
In developed countries, people tend to have fewer children, and although we've certainly fought in more than our fair share of major wars, it's been quite a long time since we've been involved in an all-encompassing, drawn out conflict with a massive death toll.