China has what is called radicals, they are pictograms, and there is like 214 of them. They came from observing nature, human and otherwise, and drawing a similarly. This happen a long time ago, but the earliest example is the oracle bone script (ca later second millennium), which merged with other regional writing scripts, shorten and developed into what it is today.
While it does not have a "ABC" kind of alphabet, Chinese words are formed by stand alone characters or a sequence of characters together, which in turn are created from using these radical. These radicals in a sense are the alphabet.
It is much like English words are created from syllables which in turn are created from letters.