The design of the camera is modeled after the human eye. While true, the camera falls far short when it comes to reproducing a faithful image. This is because we see via a combination of eye and brain. As an example, the human eye lens projects an image of the outside world onto a screen at the rear of the eyeball. This screen is called the retina. This projected image is upside-down; as a baby, you quickly learned how to flip and right this image.
The lens of the human eye is surrounded by muscles that tug and relax, changing their tension. This changes the shape of the eye lens making it fatter when viewing close-by objects and thinner when looking at far-away vistas. The entrance of the eye is the pupil. Surrounding the pupil is a colored muscular area. This gives us blue, or brown or hazel eyes. This area is called the iris after the Greek god of the rainbow. The iris expands (dilates) and contracts (opening gets smaller) automatically adjusting the amount of light allowed to enter the eye.
The retina has two types of cells that respond to light. One type is rod shaped; it is highly sensitive to light but can’t distinguish colors. The center of the retina has only cone shaped cells. This area, called the macula, is tasked to see colors and fine detail.
I could go on and on about the amazing human eye and how it works. If you are interested, why not google this subject. Anyway, camera makers try and try to replicate the workings of the human eye. To date, cameras do a wonderful job replicating what we see. However, camera makers have never succeeded when it comes to truly making a faithful reproduction of nature.