why were the Dardenelles in Turkey so important to the British in WW1?
and why Churchill sent british troops to be shot down like hoards of cattle by the Turks? was he drunk?
- Chances68Lv 76 months agoFavorite Answer
Capture of them would have allowed the British to open a supply route to the Russians, and open a new, Southern front against the Central Powers, flanking the stalemate of the trenches in western Europe, and bringing British naval might to bear for a time, at least.
- JosephLv 76 months ago
At the outbreak of the war Turkey, though angry about British refusing to hand over two newly built battleships, was determined to remain neutral. The events quickly overtook Turkish plans. When the war broke out German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and light cruiser SMS Brealau were trapped in the Mediterranean Sea. With Royal Navy in hot pursuit, the ships sailed to Turkey, where German diplomats offered to hand over the ships to the Turks. The ships were then commissioned in the Ottoman Navy as Yavuz Sultan Selim and Midilli, but retained their German crews. Taking orders from Berlin instead of Constantinople, the two ships then transitioned to the Black Sea (anchoring briefly in front of Russian Ambassador's residence in Constantinople to sing the German National Anthem) to shell Russian ports, thus dragging Turkey into the war on the side of Germany.
In February 1915 combined British and French naval task force attempted to force its way through Dardanelles Straights, sail onto Constantinople and force Turkish surrender. Of the over 100 guns in several coastal batteries along the straights only 14, located at the Narrows, were heavy enough and had enough range to threaten the fleet. These guns protected the minefields that barred passage through the Straights. For a month the capital ships engaged in artillery duels with shore defenses while the British minesweepers attempted to clear the mines. By middle of March 1915 the Turks were nearly out of ammunition and there was a panic in Constantinople as there was every expectation that in just a few days the city would be staring at the muzzles of the British and French guns.
On the morning of March 18 the task force engaged the Turkish defenses south of town of Canakkale once again. And then, as far as the Turks were concerned, a miracle happened. Around 2 o'clock in the afternoon, when the Turkish artillery was largely silenced the French pre-dreadnought battleship Bouvet struck a mine, capsized and sunk in a couple of minutes with a loss of most of her crew. Over the next four hours two British battleships also struck mines and sunk. Two French battleships and a British battlecruiser were also damaged. Despite the losses and with Turkish artillery silenced the British minesweepers could clear the minefields unmolested. The fleet still possessed enough strength, with more reinforcements on the way, to defeat the Ottoman fleet, should it choose to give battle, but British Admiral DeRobeck, the commander of the combined task force, against the advice of his staff officers to press on the attack decided to withdraw, thus snatching defeat from the jaws of victory.
While the ships were busy reducing one by one the Turkish coastal defenses along the Dardanelles, a regiments of Royal Marines made up from ships' Marine detachments actually landed on Gallipoli. The Marines found the peninsula undefended and easily scaled the heights overlooking the Dardanelles. However, the Marines didn't have enough troops to hold their positions and withdrew the next day. This landing served no military purpose at the time but it did show the need for a ground element to compliment the naval operations. It also showed how vulnerable the Turkish shore batteries on the European side of the Straights were to an attack from land, a flaw the Turks rushed to correct.
By April 1915 Turks rushed German-supplied heavy artillery to Gallipoli and deployed two infantry divisions in the Cape Helles area, two more at the north end of peninsula. More troops were stationed on the Asian side of the Straights. In total, Turks deployed over 60,000 men to protect the Dardanelles, backed by German and Austrian advisers and artillery batteries. These troops were well dug in on the high ground, with barbed wire and minefield protecting their positions.
The nearest large British force available for land operation was the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, (ANZAC) then undergoing training in Egypt for the war in Europe. Indian, British Territorial and French Colonial troops and the British Naval Division also participated in operation.
The main landings at V and W Beaches at Cape Helles led to heavy casualties on both sides. Of the first 200 men of the Royal Munster Fusiliers landing below the old fortress of Seddülbahir from the converted collier River Clyde only 21 made to to the beach. Meantime, the Turkish 57th Infantry regiment that defended the heights above Cape Helles was wiped out to a man. To this day, there is no 57th Regiment in the Turkish Army.
Elsewhere the landings fared better. At Y Beach the the allies landed unopposed and advanced inland, beyond their first day objectives, reaching the Village of Krithia that was only lightly defended at the time. The village controlled the high ground above Cape Helles. Here, the British military tradition of discouraging initiative and only acting on orders reared its ugly head. Lacking orders and unwilling to act on their own initiative the British withdrew. Thousands of men would die in the days to come in futile attempts to capture the village.
Further north at ANZAC Cove the 1st Australian and New Zealand and Australian Divisions landed on the same beach and their units became entangled. It took time to sort out the mess, and four hours after the first elements came to shore the troops started pushing inland. By this time it was too late. While the landing encountered little opposition, by the time the ANZACS attempted to expand the beachhead the Turks moved strong forces to oppose them.
The landing troops were further hampered by a steeply raising unfamiliar terrain crisscrossed by a maze of gullies and lack of accurate maps and absence of howitzers to bombard Turkish positions on the reverse slopes of ridges. The allies relied on ships guns to provide the artillery support but the ships' guns were designed to fire on other ships. They couldn't elevate their barrels to fire on Turkish positions on the high ground above the beachheads. Within days the Gallipoli campaign turned into a bloody stalemate, like the one on the Western Front.
- TinaLv 76 months ago
You have some very odd ideas. When does anyone shoot down hoards of cattle? And no, Churchill did not plan for British troops to be massacred.
It was Hitler who described Churchill as a habitual drunkard - do you think he was likely to be telling the truth and why do you repeat Nazi propaganda?
As other posters have pointed out, it was a battle plan that went wrong. It happens.
Not all the troops were shot down by the way - my grandfather fought in the Gallipoli campaign and came home alive.
- 6 months ago
They were seen to be a back route to KO turkey and supply Russia. A two for one bonus
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- FredLv 76 months ago
The Dardanelle's were a place where an invasion of Turkey was believed by Winston Churchill to be a soft target to attack up the peninsular and take Turkey out of WW1. The plan was solid and good but British leaders landed the Australian and New Zealand troops in the wrong place and instead of the low easy to traverse sand Dunes Churchill had planned for them to be dropped at they were dropped against a sheer cliff face which was well protected by Turkish soldiers. A couple times the Anzacs as they were to become known as managed to get a force up on the top of the cliffs but the old British leaders failed to take advantage of this ordering the men to stop to wait for further orders instead of taking the advantage of the poorly defended area they had managed to breach and the Turkish were able to strengthen their positions and drive the Anzacs back down the cliffs. I think the Gallipoli campaign went for 9 months and finally the Anzacs had to be withdrawn, but for the disadvantage of having the low ground had killed more Turks than they lost themselves.
Churchill was criticized for the failed campaign but in reality it was the British leaders who led the campaign who made the mistakes in what should have been a victory for Britain and the Anzacs.
- LudwigLv 66 months ago
Cock-eyed idea of military history. The strategic aim was to capture Constantinople. If that had been achieved, it would have made a profound difference not only to the conduct and outcome of the First World War, but on all subsequent world history.
The Gallipoli campaign was an opposed amphibious assault. These are without exception the most risky military operations. People have been arguing about where the blame for its failure lies for the last 100 years, many argue that it was the fault of the Royal Navy.
- curtisports2Lv 76 months ago
The Dardanelles is a natural strait that connects, along with the Bosphorus, another strait, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It was and is a strategic shipping channel. WW I was not just between the Allies and Germans, the Ottoman Empire in its last days were part of the Central Powers. Churchill wanted control of that channel.
The Gallipoli Campaign was a failure for the collaboration of British Commonwealth forces. It's not that Churchill 'sent british troops to be shot down like hoards of cattle by the Turks'. It was war. War doesn't always go according to plan.