what caused the big bang?

what caused the big bang? nothing. nothing caused the big bang. everything in the universe is based on cause and effect, but cause and effect does not apply to the universe itself.

20 Answers

  • goring
    Lv 6
    6 months ago

    nothing cause a big bang because there is no such thing a s a biG bang

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  • 6 months ago

    There is always a cause for an effect. But we can't always measure that cause; so we are stuck with measuring the effect that is observable. And that's the crux of the legerdemain we call quantum physics.

    So we measure what we can of the universe to infer what the cause was based on those observables. And here's one educated guess:

    There is a high entropy infinite eternal meta universe made up of quantum fields containing energy. As they are quanta, they are in continual fluctuation into and out of space.time. But on average, over infinite time and space, the total energy is zero as the fluctuations cancel out. And that's the nothing you hear said that the big bang came from.

    Anyway, during these fluctuations one instance resulted in a quantum event that produced a small low entropy ball of space.time at trillions of degrees temperature. Within a Planck Time (1E-43 seconds) that temperature dropped to a cool billions of degrees and almost immediately the little ball of space.time began to expand at faster than light. We call that the inflationary epoch. The uniformity of the background temperature and of the galactic clusters is corroborating evidence of the inflationary model.

    As the temperature of the global universe continued to cool, the fundamental forces separated out and space dust and debris began to form from the lighter elements. That dust and debris became the first stars and then galaxies. The rest is history, but by then the universe has been formed for all intents.

    And that's one model of the big bang.

    Source(s): The Elegant Universe by Brian Greene, The Cosmic Landscape by Feynman.
    • oldprof
      Lv 7
      6 months agoReport

      I realize some quantum guys will shudder at my assertion there is always a cause. Live with it. You can't show there isn't a cause any more than I can show there is. And I think my spin on this is way more logical..."God doesn't play dice."

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  • 6 months ago

    Not everything has a cause. Virtual particles and quantum fluctuations happen at random without a cause.

    There was no before the initial big bang. Time began at that instant. Time behaves differently than we are used to thinking of time. The big bang was the first event so it could not have a prior cause.

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  • 6 months ago

    Finally, an easy question!

    "We don't know"

    "The" Big Bang is not an event.

    "Big Bang" is the awful nickname of a theory; the nickname was given by an adversary of the theory (Fred Hoyle) in 1949. It has the unfortunate effect of making people think that "the Big Bang" is an explosion event.


    1927: a priest (Lemaitre) who happens to be a great mathematician and a good astronomer, proposes the Primeval Atom Hypothesis: all matter existed in a mass of infinite density that exploded: all matter started flying apart.

    Early 1930s: Father Lemaitre proposes a mathematical model showing that space, if it contains mass, cannot remain static: it must either expand or contract. Observation work he did with Edwin Hubble (the American astronomer) showed that the choice was "expand" as opposed to contract. Einstein had a hard time with that (he had predicted a static universe where space neither expands nor contracts). In this model, there is no longer any "explosion" because, by then, scientists understand that matter cannot exist at "infinite density".

    After a private meeting betwee the two (Father Lemaitre was humble enough to not gloat), Einstein accepted the model and described his result (the coefficient "lambda" that made space static) as "the biggest mistake" of his life. Einstein and Lemaitre toured the USA to explain the mathematical model to cosmologists. Of course, Einstein used the opportunity to explain his Relativity theory at the same time.

    1948: scientists Alpher and Gamow use the priest's model to build a theory to explain the effect of the expansion of space on the energy content of the universe:

    Same total amount of energy + more space to spread it out = the energy density (temperature) goes down with time.

    And they explain how the initial energy became the first elements (nucleosynthesis).

    1949: Fred Hoyle comes up with a different theory (Steady State) whereby the expansion of space does NOT change the density of the energy -- new energy is being constantly created. In his theory, the universe is eternally the same. Eternal universe = no creation = no creator (Fred was a proud atheist - that is why he hated the priest's idea). In 1949, during a radio interview, Fred came up with the nickname "Big Bang", for the theory that came from the priest's idea.

    1964: with new and imporved ratio-telescopes, evidence starts to come in and shows that Steady State is invalid. Furthermore, the evidence confirms the predictions of Big Bang. Unfortunately, by then, the nickname has stuck. Even though we know the theory contains no explosion, everyone still calls it "Big Bang". Father Lemaitre was still alive in 1964. By then, the Church had rewarded him for his discovery by promoting him to the rank of Domestic Prelate (equivalent to a bishop, but without the need to look after a See). The Church was very happy with the theory that came out of Monsignor Lemaitre's model.

    The Planck Time - the initial moment of the expansion as explained by the Big Bang theory - is what most peope (usually non-cosmologists) refer to when they talk of THE Big Bang, thinking it was an explosion.

    It is simply the first moment in the domain of the mathematical model. The main variable is time, and if you push the model back to that time, you reach a moment when the density was so high that we no longer understand how things work.

    At the Planck Time (13.8 billion years ago):

    -- the initial energy already existed

    -- space was already expanding

    -- energy density was NOT infinite (the number is known)

    -- matter did not yet exist (it comes later)

    The problem really is that we do not understand how time "flows" at higher density. Some think that time and gravity become "the same thing" at higher density. It is a unification threshold.

    In other words, the word "before" does not (yet) make sense at that special moment.

    Your question "What caused the Big Bang?" is about what happens "before", and we don't know.

    There are roughly a half-dozen ideas about what COULD have happened before. One of them (the one promoted by Father Lemaitre) is that [his] God created the universe during the tiniest fraction of a second "before" the Planck Time. The other extreme is that nothing happened: space has been expanding forever and it is only 13.8 billion years ago that the density became "low enough" for us to perceive the flow of time.

    In between, there are things like M-theory, String theory, the idea that n-branes (static subspaces of "n" dimensions existing in a higher-dimension Universe) collided to cause the expansion of three of the "n" dimensions.

    Some of these ideas require the universe to be finite. Because their mathematical models are easier, they are more popular, causing some people to hope that the universe is NOT infinite in spatial extent. But other models still allow our whole universe to be infinite. Do not confuse it with the Observable Universe (the portion we can perceive) which is definitely finite.

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  • 6 months ago

    It's still being studied; right now, we don't *know* why the Big Bang occurred...

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  • 6 months ago

    Vacuum overcame gravity,

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  • 6 months ago

    It was a Quark of Nature

    Attachment image
    Source(s): Not many of you humans come into this establishment.... Not surprised at these prices !!
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  • Clive
    Lv 7
    6 months ago

    You gave your own answer, so why ask the question?

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  • Acetek
    Lv 4
    6 months ago

    Unknown. There a speculations but nothing concrete

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  • bubby
    Lv 6
    6 months ago

    Physics before it was a science.

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