# A hypothetical question that I hope someone will respond to?

Lets go back in history to the point in time where advances started to commence in physics and math. Lets assume the brilliant scientists had to do it all over again. Would it be inevitable that theories and equations would be identical or perhaps some alterations ? Would E=MC2 be one of the most significant scientific determinations or would it be plausible another equation would exist, in place of the indicated equation? If math is invented I postulate there could very well be completely different equations and so forth. If math is innately part of nature would it there for suggest variances would be little to none ? I know it's a rather absurd question but please respond..

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• Not as long as the laws of physics and thermodynamics re the same. The symbols might be different, but the equations would be the same for macro scale objects. Quantum mechanics applies only at a molecular atomic and subatomic scales of size. There are actually TWO equations.

E= mc^2 = hv

where h is the Planck constant an v equals frequency.

Einstein said God does not play dice with the Universe. At atomic and quark scales of size, God DOES play dice with Universe. You also have to include the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Just by observing or measuring something, you change the system. Schroedinger's cat is both dead and alive at the same time. And what about Maxwell's equations? They would not change. Neither would entropy. Energy and mass are interchangeable, BUT the process. Is inefficient. Where are the missing neutrinos? That still has not been solved.

AND the speed of light is NOT constant. Some minerals have 3 speeds of light.

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• The equations of physics are tested by experiment and by observation. The equations are correct if they match to whatever degree of accuracy with which we can perform the experiment. E=mc^2 can’t change unless the laws of nature change, and the laws of nature are believed to immutable since the first few milliseconds of creation ( the laws didn’t change but various symmetry breaking would have resulted in radically different measurements).

There are some gray areas. Quantum mechanics is an abstract mathematical representation of reality that is 100% accurate in predicting quantum behavior, yet it cannot unambiguously define the nature of reality beneath the mathematics. In this case it’s possible the mathematical description may change to one with equivalent predictive power, but also reflect the true underlying reality.

Another great area is where we have a duality where different mathematical descriptions can describe the same physics. These are difficult to describe, but an unproven example would be the holographic theories where the mathematical representation of the laws of physics on the n-1 dimensional boundary of the universe are equivalent (dual) to a different mathematical representation of the laws of physics within the n dimensional volume. Specifically, the ADS/CFT correspondence.

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• I read the history behind E=mc^2, and other scientists were starting to zero in on this equation too, at around the same time as Einstein. For example, F. Hasenöhrl derived the equation to be E=4/3 mc^2 in 1904, which was of course wrong, and eventually Einstein came up with the right one in 1905. But there were many indications of E=mc^2 from previous experiments, almost a hundred years before Einstein.

• YKhan
Lv 7
6 months agoReport

http://www.naturalphilosophy.org/site/harryricker/2015/05/23/the-origin-of-the-equation-e-mc2/

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• The only reason that E=mc^2 is given any special credence is it pointed to the possibility of the atomic bomb. Unfortunately for us there are nations that are far more impressed with the possibility of ever more powerful weapons than they are with raising the standard of living of their poor, increasing the safety and security of their populations, or ensuring that every child born has a fair and equitable access to health and education.

If it hadn't been for the second world war then Einstein's theories ( which predated that war by 45 years) would have remained as an interesting curiosity and nothing more.

Given that far more significant discoveries had been made by many people I doubt that they would have remained undiscovered.

What would be more different is mathematics. We MAY have discovered the place value system. There is no reason on earth why base 10 would have been chosen.

Any base number has the same basic properties.

A smaller base number reduces the number of tables that must be learned.

For example we have 100 addition, 100 subtraction, 100 multiplication and 100 division rules.

If we had adopted octal there would only be 64 of each of these.

If you remove the trivial ones there are only about 45 of each compared to about 85 for our system.

HALF as much learning.

And there is also no reason why numbers would be divided in groups of powers of 3.

No reason why time would have so many odd bases contained within it.

Maths would then be less recognizable than physics would be.

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• For centuries there was an argument as to whether 'natural laws' existed in other places besides earth. Nobody had ever been to Saturn, so how would you know 2+2=4 there? People really believed that the planets orbited in perfect circles, moved by the hands of invisible angels! In fact when Johannes Keppler figured out that the planets didn't move in perfectly circular orbits at constant speed, he spent years trying to figure that out, trying to square it with his religious education. He thought God must be trying to tell us something!

It was Isaac Newton who figured out that the planets behaved as 'falling bodies'--showing that it was nothing but gravity that made the planets orbit the sun. This was one of those discoveries that Changed Everything. The revelation that natural law was consistent throughout the universe came as an enormous shock! This one single discovery led to the beginning of what today we call 'science'. It even led to the creation of a new religion! Deism. Deists believed God doesn't intervene in the universe, that natural law is supreme throughout the universe.

E=MC^2 is similar. Up to about 100 years ago we thought there was only so much matter in the universe and only so much energy. You could create or destroy them, only change their form. Einstein went a step further to show that energy and matter were both made of the same thing, and , there was only so much of THAT, whatever it was. But you could transform energy into matter and back again.

Einstein didn't invent that, he discovered it. Just like 2+2=4, it was true in prehistoric times, and it will be true when the sun burns out. It's true on earth and in a galaxy a billion light years away. (That's about 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles, BTW). If Einstein hadn't discovered it, someone else would have, and it would be just the same ratio.

E=MC^2 is an expression of the ratio of matter to energy when switching. A tiny amount of matter makes a huge amount of energy. E is energy, M is mass, and C is the speed of light.

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• Also if Einstein never existed would E=MC2 never come to fruition ? Could this scientific law be explained by using a different equation ?

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