Good bicycles are described using (at least) TWO measurements, FRAME size and WHEEL size.
And just like jeans don t have a set ratio between waist size and leg length, bicycles don t have a set ratio between frame size and wheel size.
Now, in the world of cheap bikes, as in most kids bikes and department store bikes, this is too complicated for them to mess with. So they simplify and use wheel size.
Now, you ask "can I fit", then you give your weight.
How did you expect THAT to work out?
You might as well have asked what shoe size might suit you.
Height would have been a far better number to give.
So, assuming you re NOT a kid, and you want to use a kids bike - no, you WON T fit.
You ll have your knees up to your chest if you try to do seated riding unless you do some SERIOUS mods to the frame.
Breaking - I wouldn t worry about that. The way to make cheap bikes is to use thick pipes. And to stick with standard hub sizes. Unless you ride down stairs, it ll most likely hold. I built a kinda-sorta folder out of a 12" wheel size kids bike, and it has held up well.
Rims are the metal hoops that the tire sits on. Replacing rims would mean rebuilding the wheels. Spoke count and ERD(Effective Rim Diameter) has to match for that to work. Unless you want to replace all spokes too.
So I m guessing you mean replacing the WHEELS. That is certainly easier, but there are some numbers that needs to match here too. Axle type/length, wheel diameter. And you can t go crazy on the rim width either, if you want to reuse the tires.