For which of the following types of ionic compounds are most examples insoluble in water? nitrates sulfates chlorides hydroxides?

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  • 6 months ago
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    Solubility rules .....

    Not all of the compounds containing these species are ionic. A better question would have be, "For which of the following types of salts ...."

    Of the four chemical families mentioned in your question, there are probably more insoluble hydroxides (and oxides) than any of the others.

    .... all nitrates are soluble

    .... all sulfates are soluble except for the compounds of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ and Ag+.

    .... all chlorides are soluble except for the compounds of Ag+, Hg2^2+, Pb2+

    .... all hydroxides are insoluble except for the alkali metal hydroxides (Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 and Ba(OH)2 are marginally soluble.)

    Perhaps you should have spent a few minutes with the solubility rules and you could have avoided this question altogether.

    There are a number of different sets of solubility rules on the interweb, just use Google. Here are a couple. The first one is easily memorized.

    Soluble

    • All Nitrates, Acetates, Ammonium, and Group 1 (IA) salts

    • All Chlorides, Bromides, and Iodides, except Silver, Lead, and Mercury(I)

    • All Fluorides except Group 2 (IIA), Lead(II), and Iron(III)

    • All Sulfates except Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Mercury, Lead(II), and Silver

    Insoluble

    • All Carbonates and Phosphates except Group 1 (IA) and Ammonium

    • All Hydroxides except Group 1 (IA), Strontium, Barium, and Ammonium

    • All Sulfides except Group 1 (IA), 2 (IIA), and Ammonium

    • All Oxides except Group 1 (IA), which dissolve to form hydroxide ion

    =================

    • Salts containing Group I elements (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) are soluble . There are few exceptions to this rule.

    • Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble.

    • Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are generally soluble.

    • Salts containing Cl -, Br -, or I - are generally soluble. Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+. Thus, AgCl, PbBr2, and Hg2Cl2 are insoluble.

    • Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3 and Ag(C2H3O2) are common soluble salts of silver; virtually all others are insoluble.

    • Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include CaSO4, BaSO4, PbSO4, Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 .

    • Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, Co(OH)2 are not soluble.

    • Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble, including CdS, FeS, ZnS, and Ag2S. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also insoluble.

    • Carbonates are frequently insoluble. Group II carbonates (CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO3) are insoluble, as are FeCO3 and PbCO3.

    • Chromates are frequently insoluble. Examples include PbCrO4 and BaCrO4.

    • Phosphates such as Ca3(PO4)2 and Ag3PO4 are frequently insoluble.

    • Fluorides such as BaF2, MgF2, and PbF2 are frequently insoluble.

    Solubility rules from:

    https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_a...

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