This happens on a high heat. Then the meat will burn on the outside, but the heat doesn't have time to get through to the middle. It takes time to penetrate. Fry or griddle a steak in a very hot pan and that's what will happen. And it's what you want to happen if you like your steak rare - just sear it on the outside for a couple of minutes on each side (depending on how thick the steak is) and that will do it.
Browning meat also causes the Maillard reaction to happen - all sorts of chemical reactions go on and you get a tasty brown crust.
So if you want meat that is thoroughly cooked through and not burnt on the outside, you need to cook it "low and slow" so this doesn't happen. Use a low temperature for a long time. This is what is done to make a stew or casserole and that's the best way to make use of cheap tough cuts of meat. Fry that quickly and it will be tough, but long gentle cooking will make it soft and tender. In fact this makes the best stews. A beef stew will take 2-3 hours just gently bubbling away, and in that time the connective tissue that makes it tough will melt and add to the flavour.
So there's another thing - if you want a quickly fried steak, you need a more expensive cut of beef from along the cow's back that doesn't have connective tissue in it - fillet, rump or sirloin. The best for stewing comes from the animal's front legs and shoulders. And that's why many cookbooks will have a diagram of the Planned Cow - not all beef is the same and you want the right cut for what you want to make.