A fundamental physical constant occurring in quantum mechanics is the Planck constant, h. A common abbreviation is ħ = h/2π, also known as the reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant. The general form of wavefunction for a system of particles, each with position ri and z-component of spin sz i. Sums are over the discrete variable sz, integrals over continuous positions r.

For clarity and brevity, the coordinates are collected into tuples, the indices label the particles (which cannot be done physically, but is mathematically necessary). Following are general mathematical results, used in calculations