Schrader valves are used for larger wheels and are wider, although there are sizes where either Presta or Schrader could be used, where they may be some overlap in type. I know someone who rides a really old bike that has a Woods valve on the front and a Schrader on the back wheel. The wheel rim will have a hole which should indicate which type of inner tube to use.
Schrader valves generally use higher pressure, and are used for other wheels such as a two wheeled sack truck trolley, cars, motor cycles etc. You can easily buy a bicycle pump Schrader connector that will fit onto any bicycle hand pump. But ensure you buy a decent connector not a cheap one otherwise when you pump the tyre up you could end up with more air coming out than going in.
Presta valves replaced the older Woods valves back in the 1980s. Prestas are used for narrower wheels such as racing and touring bikes, hybrid bikes, and traditional bikes.