of course. adapt means to modify behavior or functions to better meet the needs of the situation. Evolve means to change in a systematic way with the passage of time.
Quite often, adaptations lead to evolution, as demonstrated by the socialization of pretty well any human child as they become adults. But it does not have to. Adaptation could just result in a chaotic or cyclical longer-term behavior, especially when the adaptation affects the circumstances. You know, like when in a canoe and one person rocks it, the other person rocks the other way to adjust for the first action, and back and forth, each time overadjusting slightly, until the boat flips.
Things can also evolve without ever truly adapting, or adapt without ever evolving. I adapt to traffic conditions when driving home from work, changing routes according to flow, but I still take essentially the same route home every single day. I adapt at need, but there is no purpose to evolving. the shortest route is still the shortest route.