China didn't industrialize until fairly recently. China was basically feudal up until the 20th century, where most people were impoverished peasants subjugated to the rule of the landlord class. Mao Zedong lead a revolution that destroyed the landlord class, and unified China into a new government focused on industrialization over agriculture, and even then, Mao had trouble industrializing China, and its big industrial boom wasn't seen until Deng Xiaoping who succeeded Mao in 1976.
Modern day China hasn't existed for 2000 years. It was founded by Mao in 1949.
I'm really not too aware of the history of India, but I assume they industrialized very recently as well, as India was only founded in 1947.