There is nothing in the mind as the observer of its world more fundamental than philosophy or more like the mind itself than critical thinking. The relation between the two, therefore, is hard to examine, i.e. to understand philosophy we need to philosophise, and to explain the critical thinking we need to … think critically ... think about thinking – metathinking. Therefore, if the difference between the two is to be studied than we need to analogize, to stand aside both and observe.
Imagine critical thinking to be like breathing, if so, then philosophy is like living. One could live without breathing only when on a life-support machine for instance. And a philosophy without critical thinking is no philosophy but invalid theoretical nonsense. On the other hand, critical thinking without philosophy is like a pile of bricks, thoughts without context, perspective or direction. Then, just as an architectural design provides a structure for the bricks to be meaningfully laid down in the form of a building, philosophy provides a critically thoughtful mind with the way to be meaningfully thoughtful.