Yes and no. While, once you're 18, they can't prevent you from attending the uni you want to, what they *can* do is refuse to provide their info for your FAFSA, which can impact your ability to get aid to allow you to afford the uni you want to attend.
When I advise students in your situation, what I often recommend is that you apply to the unis you want to, and *also* to one uni that you don't hate (ideally) and which your parents approve of. When you're looking at the unis you like, see if you can't find things about them that your parents might approve of, to help you sell them on the idea. For example, if they are very protective of you, does the uni offer single sex housing, or a dorm where people promise not to drink alcohol or etc? Or would your parents be more likely to approve the school if it's Catholic (even if you are not?) Think about these types of things, and see if you can find things that can help.
I hope you find a way to go to the school of your choice. But if, in the end, you do find that what's best is to attend a school your parents approve of, do things to give yourself some of the freedom you want. For example, join clubs and activities on campus, and really participate in them, so you spend a lot of time on campus. Study with others in the library or etc., rather than at home. Get a part-time job on campus. Consider doing a year at another school via national or international student exchange. Do a summer program, or an internship in another city. Find ways to get yourself some freedom - your parents really can't argue if you must, in order to complete your degree, work in the bio lab every night, for example. Find a way.