To answer your question: yes, you missed plenty of things. But that's why it's best, if at all possible, to make multiple trips to NYC.
As for the places you mentioned, I think you should reorganize your itinerary. For example, St. Patrick's Cathedral is across the street from Rockefeller Center, so you should visit them on the same day. The Chrysler Bldg is closer to Grand Central Terminal than the ESB. And the Guggenheim Museum is a few blocks from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (both located on Museum Mile), so you perhaps should go there right after the Met.
If you're going to Coney Island to take photos with a real camera, bring a lens cleaner (you can buy some at Walgreens or the like) because there's something the air there that leaves salt or film on lenses. When you leave Coney Island, consider taking the Q train toward Brighton Beach and up toward Prospect Park; if you're smart, you'll find photo opportunities along the way and it will give you a chance to visit the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Museum, etc. if you're interested.