How much did you earn and what is your filing status? You may not owe any income tax. If you do owe, you may or may not be penalized for claiming exempt when you were not. If you are not penalized, you may be penalized for underpaying, depending on how much tax you owe.
Because you paid nothing, there is nothing to get back in a refund unless you qualify for the Earned Income Credit.
If state income tax was taken out, you might get some or all of that back, but you have to file a state return.
Social Security and Medicare taxes are never refundable.