In Canada it is very common to have the breaker box in the house, usually in the Laundry room, sometimes the Living room, in the basement of bi level homes or the first floor of a 2 story home. Just because it is convenient there as it is indoors and where the electrician put it after talking to the builder. I have seen them in attached garages as well but most of the time, near the furnace. Having it farther away is silly, for how do you hear when the problem is fixed? Better to be within earshot range....so you can hear the radio when it starts playing music again. Having a breaker box outside just means it had not been swapped to the inside yet. This would happen during early house construction. As soon as the framed in walls are up the box is inside.
. It is very inconvenient to have it outside. It would have to be boxed in with doors so rain & snow don't get on the electrical.
. Look inside the house first. Breaker box or fuse box...they both do the same job.
.New homes or 125 year old homes,the wiring was inside(because that is the way electricians Like it)
.The main power shut off is where the wire comes off the Utility pole and connects to the house, usually one corner of it like the garage. Then the wiring is connected to the breaker box inside the house from the main power shut off which has the electrical meter on the outside of it. The main power would be thrown off and all the power in the house would be shut off in case of a fire. Keeps the fire fighters safe from electrocution.