Some few of the smarter animals have shown some skill of reason.
Besides humans, some primates, crow and raven, dogs, and octopus are a few.
We are talking beyond conditioned response here. Visiting a friend at the oceanographic institute The middle of a study of behavior, an octopus was presented with a rather complicated puzzle, how to get to a small crab to eat it.
The crab was placed in a jar, that place within another jar both opening in a different manner.
Not seeing how these jars opened, the octopus managed to figure out how to open the jars and get the crab in an incredibly short time. Problem solving by deductive reasoning. After opening the first jar, it simply discarded it and went onto the second. It did this consistently showing problem solving skill.
A crow was presented with a similar situation and managed to use a form of tool, to get to food.
Possibly the smartest of arthropods, a jumping spider given 3 ways to get to prey, consistently chose the most efficient manner to get to and catch it prey successfully. A behavior beyond instinct.