Adding spring water one time probably won't "destroy" it, but it will reduce its charging capacity. How much it does depends on the spring water. That's because only spring water comes from a spring, from the ground. As water is the universal solvent and as the ground contains minerals, water from the ground has dissolved metals in it, metal ions that it has picked up from the ground. As everyone knows, metal is a conductor and affects the flow of electricity. What that translates to when added to your battery acid is metal ions reacting with the battery acid and with the electrodes, thus causing of degradation in charging capacity of battery. The only water that doesn't contain metal ions is distilled water, water that has been purified by evaporating it and then gathering its condensation, which is pure H2O. That's why you should only ever add distilled water.
So, will adding spring water destroy your battery? Probably not if you do it only once, but even doing it once stands to significantly reduce the effectiveness and life of your battery, and "probably not" means that it is possible that you could destroy the battery if whatever spring water you use is particularly rich in minerals, for all it takes to destroy a battery is to make it incapable of holding the bare minimum 12.6 volts, but functioning well, a car battery measures between 13.7 volts and 14.7 volts. The further you dip below this range towards 12.6 volts, you start having things happen like the lights dimming when your engine's RPMs drop to idle and slow turn overs when starting the car and the car being unable to start in cold weather. So it doesn't take much of a degradation in your battery's ability to hold a charge to start seeing negative effects, effects that tax other electrical components, like the solenoids in your starter and your alternator, and can cause them to go bad.