"Es" refers to what something or someone is intrinsically or permanently, or at least for a long time.
"Está" refers either to location or to temporary characteristics.
"Es casada" means "is married." Marriage is not permanent [nobody's born married, and the spouse could die], but it is long-term and treated as permanent.
If you say of a girl, "Está bonita," it may be a subtle insult, saying she is [at the moment] pretty, but maybe she isn't usually. More polite to say "Es bonita." You could say her dress "es bonita" or "es de color rojo" because these characteristics are not going to change. But you would say the dress "está sucio" or "está limpio" because being dirty or clean can be a temporary condition.
Location, even if it is permanent, is always signified by "está" "Sacramento está en California."