Any of those is better than C++ for getting something up and working quickly. If you need more speed from the start, C# and Java have IDEs that compile (C# statically compiles to optimized machine code), plus will help you build GUI applications if you want a windowed interface, have better source code management, syntax checking in the editor, type and data safety and powerful debuggers.
I wonder what high school CS class you took. The AP Computer Science curriculum for US high schools ditched C++ for Java around 2001--I presume mostly because of the traps that the C core language has for new programmers (and probably spurred by the compatibility-breaking changes in the ISO C++98 specification.)
Don't get me wrong. I don't hate C++. When it's the right tool, it's great. I think that templates are the best thing that Stroustrup ever thought of. I just think it's the wrong language for most applications, if you have a choice.