How did Arkansas Governor Ovral Faubus respond to the Little Rock School Board's plan desegregate?
How did Arkansas Governor Ovral Faubus respond to the Little Rock School Board?s plan to desegregate Little Rock schools in 1957?
a. he ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African American students from attending Central High School in Little Rock
b. he ordered the Arkansas National Guard to protect the African American students from upset and unruly white crowds
c. he refused to take a stand on the issue of integration in hopes of insuring his own relection as Governor
d. he ordered the school system to come up with a plan for gradual, rather than immediate, integration of Little Rock schools
- ?Lv 43 years agoFavorite Answer
the following is an extract from the web page (below) discussing: Orval Faubus
Little Rock integration crisis
Faubus speaking to a crowd protesting the integration of Little Rock schoolsFaubus' name became internationally known during the Little Rock Crisis of 1957, when he used the National Guard to stop African Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School as part of federally ordered racial desegregation. His strong stand on this issue may seem surprising considering Faubus' 1954 run for governor as a progressive candidate promising to increase spending on schools and roads. During the first few months of his administration, Faubus desegregated state buses and public transportation and began to investigate the possibility of introducing multi-racial schools.
In 1956, Faubus easily blocked a primary election challenge from State Senator James D. Johnson of Conway, the segregationist leader of conservatives. Johnson's wife, Virginia Morris Johnson, made campaign speeches for her husband and later became the first woman (1968) to seek the office of Arkansas governor. By the start of 1957, Faubus in his second term had obtained legislative passage of a controversial tax to increase teacher salaries.
Critics have long charged that Faubus' fight in Little Rock against the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that separate schools were inherently unequal was politically motivated. The ensuing battle helped to shield him from the political fallout from the tax increase and to diminish Johnson's appeal. Journalist Harry Ashmore (who won a Pulitzer Prize for his columns on the subject) portrayed the fight over Central High as a crisis manufactured by Faubus. Ashmore said that Faubus used the Guard to keep blacks out of Central High School because he was frustrated by the success his political opponents were having in using segregationist rhetoric to arouse white voters.
Faubus' decision led to a showdown with President Dwight D. Eisenhower and former Governor Sid McMath. In October 1957, Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to return to their armories which effectively removed them from Faubus' control. Eisenhower then sent elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Arkansas to protect the black students and enforce the Federal court order. In retaliation, Faubus shut down Little Rock high schools for the 1958—1959 school years. This is often referred to as "The Lost Year" in Little Rock.
Though Faubus later lost general popularity as a result of his stand against desegregation, at the time he was included among the "Ten Men in the World Most Admired by Americans", according to Gallup's most admired man and woman poll for 1958. This dichotomy was later summed up as follows: Faubus was both the "best loved" and "most hated" of Arkansas politicians of the second half of the twentieth century.