How did Christianity civlized Europe?
Historically speaking how did Christianity civilized the pagan barbarians during the Middle Ages in Europe?
- janhoiLv 64 years agoFavorite Answer
(i)Abolishing the Gladiatorial Games in Rome
-When Christianity became the religion of the state Rome clamped down on the games. As many as 20,000 people could be sacrificed in the areas in these games
(ii)Abolishing Female infanticide
-The practice of leaving you child out to die if she was a girl was legal and Rome and the Church criminalized that
-Female infanticide was common among many of the Pagan tribes, especially among the Vikings
(iii)Abolishing Trial by Combat
-This was done during the Middle Ages by Pope Innocent at the 4th Lateran Council
(iv) Abolishing Trial by Ordeal
-This was common throughout the Ancient world going back to the Babylonians. It increased during the collapse of the Roman Empire among the Germanic tribes
-The Church during the Middle Ages under Innocent abolished the practice
(v)Setting up some of the first orphanages in history
-St Basil the Great in the 4th century set up not only the first orphanages in history but also set up cities specifically dedicated to the poor and sick.
(vi)Pushing the first Peace movements in Western history
-During the collapse of the Roman Empire the Catholic Church played the role of peacemaker. This is seen in instances like Pope Leo negotiating and preventing Atila the Hun's invasions
-The Benedictines pushed the "Peace and God and Truce of God" campaign to end violence among the warlords in Europe that sprung after the Viking invasions. That created an enclaved of protected communities that were spared from the violence and would become the basis for the development that took place in High Middle Ages(which was a Golden Age)
(vii)Pushing the first Universities in Western History
-They were initially started as Cathedral schools and then built up into Universities during the High Middle Ages.
-Institutions like Oxford, Cambridge and others were founded and run by the Church
(viii)Being a Patron of the Arts
-The Church patronized the Arts and helped facilitate the Renaissance and Renaissance figures like Michelangelo and DonetelliSource(s): Anglican Christian
- Anonymous4 years ago
A person can know with certainty Jesus exists and is God by practicing the Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin.
- Tyler LLv 64 years ago
Much of Europe became civilized under the Roman Empire (Republic) before its turn to Christianity.
- interested1208Lv 74 years ago
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- Anonymous4 years ago
The progress of civil development was proceeding apace in Europe before Christianity happened along. Greco-Roman natural philosophy and engineering civilized Europe; Christianity just went along for the ride.
- 4 years ago
Christians were responsible for starting universities and hospitals in Europe. The church contributed heavily to knowledge, learning human biology, that is basically where modern medicine was started. So the pagans came to Christians to be healed and cured of their illnesses, that converted a lot of people
- IOMLv 74 years ago
With the spade, as usual. And they're surprised their muzzie "brothers" are chopping off heads...
- 4 years ago
Sorry for the news. But Christianity didn't civilize anyone. If anything it held humanity back for centuries by demonizing science and the persecution of scientists.
- ArtemisLv 74 years ago
Heitman and Hagan identify the Inquisition, Crusades, Wars of Religion and antisemitism as being "among the most notorious examples of Christian violence". To this list, J. Denny Weaver adds, "warrior popes, support for capital punishment, corporal punishment under the guise of 'spare the rod and spoil the child,' justifications of slavery, world-wide colonialism in the name of conversion to Christianity, the systemic violence of women subjected to men."
Christian violence includes "forms of systemic violence such as poverty, racism, and sexism."
Among common examples of violence in Christianity, J. Denny Weaver lists "(the) crusades, the multiple blessings of wars, warrior popes, support for capital punishment, corporal punishment under the guise of 'spare the rod and spoil the child,' justifications of slavery, world-wide colonialism in the name of conversion to Christianity, the systemic violence of women subjected to men". In the view of many historians, the Constantinian shift turned Christianity from a persecuted into a persecuting religion.
Miroslav Volf has identified the intervention of a "new creation", as in the Second Coming, as a particular aspect of Christianity that generates violence. Writing about the latter, Volf says: "Beginning at least with Constantine's conversion, the followers of the Crucified have perpetrated gruesome acts of violence under the sign of the cross. Over the centuries, the seasons of Lent and Holy Week were, for the Jews, times of fear and trepidation; Christians have perpetrated some of the worst pogroms as they remembered the crucifixion of Christ, for which they blamed the Jews. Muslims also associate the cross with violence; crusaders' rampages were undertaken under the sign of the cross."
The Inquisition is a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy The Spanish Inquisition is often cited in popular literature and history as an example of Catholic intolerance and repression. The total number processed by the Inquisition throughout its history was approximately 150,000; applying the percentages of executions that appeared in the trials of 1560–1700—about 2%—the approximate total would be about 3,000 put to death. Nevertheless, it is likely that the toll was higher, keeping in mind the data provided by Dedieu and García Cárcel for the tribunals of Toledo and Valencia, respectively. It is likely that between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed. About 50 people were executed by the Mexican Inquisition. Included in that total are 29 people executed as "Judaizers" between 1571 and 1700 out of 324 people prosecuted for practicing the Jewish religion.
In the Portuguese Inquisition the major target were those who had converted from Judaism to Catholicism, the Conversos, also known as New Christians or Marranos, who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism. Many of these were originally Spanish Jews, who had left Spain for Portugal. The number of victims is estimated around 40,000. One particular focus of the Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions was the issue of Jewish anusim and Muslim converts to Catholicism, partly because these minority groups were more numerous in Spain and Portugal than in many other parts of Europe, and partly because they were often considered suspect due to the assumption that they had secretly reverted to their previous religions. The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Portuguese Inquisition acting in Portuguese India, and in the rest of the Portuguese Empire in Asia. It was established in 1560, briefly suppressed from 1774–1778, and finally abolished in 1812. Based on the records that survive, H. P. Salomon and Rabbi Isaac S.D. Sassoon state that between the Inquisition's beginning in 1561 and its temporary abolition in 1774, some 16,202 persons were brought to trial by the Inquisition. Of this number, it is known that 57 were sentenced to death and executed, and another 64 were burned in effigy (this sentence was applied to those who had fled or died in prison; in the latter case, the remains were burned in a coffin at the same time as the effigy). Others were subjected to lesser punishments or penance, but the fate of many of those tried by the Inquisition is unknown.
The Roman Inquisition, during the second half of the 16th century, was responsible for prosecuting individuals accused of a wide array of crimes relating to religious doctrine or alternate religious doctrine or alternate religious beliefs. Out of 51,000 — 75,000 cases judged by Inquisition in Italy after 1542 around 1,250 resulted in a death sentence.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 15th to 18th centuries. A variety of different punishments were employed for those found guilty of witchcraft, including imprisonment, flogging, fines, or exile. In the Old Testament's Exodus 22:18 it states that "Thou shalt not permit a sorceress to live". Many faced capital punishment for witchcraft in the period, either by being burned at the stake, hanged on the gallows, or beheaded. Similarly, in New England, people convicted of witchcraft were hanged. The scholarly consensus on the total number of executions for witchcraft ranges between 40,000 and 60,000.
The legal basis for some inquisitorial activity came from Pope Innocent IV's papal bull Ad extirpanda of 1252, which explicitly authorized (and defined the appropriate circumstances for) the use of torture by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics. By 1256 inquisitors were given absolution if they used instruments of torture. "The overwhelming majority of sentences seem to have consisted of penances like wearing a cross sewn on one's clothes, going on pilgrimage, etc." When a suspect was convicted of unrepentant heresy, the inquisitorial tribunal was required by law to hand the person over to the secular authorities for final sentencing, at which point a magistrate would determine the penalty, which was usually burning at the stake although the penalty varied based on local law. The laws were inclusive of proscriptions against certain religious crimes (heresy, etc.), and the punishments included death by burning, although imprisonment for life or banishment would usually be used. Thus the inquisitors generally knew what would be the fate of anyone so remanded, and cannot be considered to have divorced the means of determining guilt from its effects.
Except within the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and after the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas. The institution survived as part of the Roman Curia, but in 1904 was given the new name of "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office". In 1965 it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
After the Constantinian shift, Christianity became entangled with government. While anthropologists have shown that throughout history the relationship between religion and politics has been complex, there is no doubt that religious institutions, including Christian ones, have been used coercively by governments, and have themselves used coercion. Examples include: during the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I, forced conversion and violent assimilation of pagan tribes in medieval Europe, the Inquisition, including its manifestations in Goa, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, forced conversion of indigenous children in North American and Australia, and, since 1992, against Hindus in Northeast India.
- Anonymous4 years ago
By murdering those who would not convert