When to use --ate and --ide in chemistry. Eg. Magnesium oxide/ magnesium oxate?

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  • Dr W
    Lv 7
    4 years ago

    in general..

    .. IF the anion is 1 element, the name ends in "ide"

    .. IF the anion is polyelemental, and the acid contains oxygen

    .. .. .the name ends in "ate", "ite", "us", or "ous"

    .. . ..and the name MAY have a prefix "hypo", or "per"

    .. . . depending on whether it's an acid or a salt

    .. . ..and depending on the oxidation state of the central atom

    let's tackle that polyelemental first, then give examples

    ********

    .. .. oxidation state.. .. .. .. ... .. .acid.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .salt

    .. .. of central atom. . .. .. .. prefix / suffix.. .. .. .. . .prefix / suffix

    .. .. .. .. .lowest.. .. .. . .. ... ..hypo-.. -ous.. . .. .. .. ..hypo-..-ite

    .. .. . . ...higher.. ... .. .. . .. ... .... .... -ous.. . .. .. .. .... .. ... .-ite

    .. .. . . ...higher.. ... .. .. . .. ... .... .... -ic.. .. . .. .. .. .... .. ... .-ate

    .. .. .. .. .highest.. .. .. . .. ... ...per-.. -ic.. . .. .. .. .... .. per-..-ate

    example... the sulfuric acid family.. H2SO4

    .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .oxidation state

    .. anion.. ..... ..of central atom. . .. .. .. .. .acid.. .. .. .. . ... sodium salt

    .. SO2(-2).. .. .. . ..... +2.. .. .. . .. ... . hyposulfurous.. . .. sodium hyposulfite

    .. SO3(-2).. .. .. . ..... +4.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..sulfurous.. . .. sodium .. .. .sulfite

    .. SO4(-2).. .. .. . ..... +6.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..sulfuric.. .. . .. sodium .. .. .sulfate

    .. SO5(-2).. .. .. . ..... +8.. .. .. . .. ... . .. persulfuric.... . .. sodium.. .persulfate

    example... the nitric acid family.. HNO3

    .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .oxidation state

    .. anion.. ..... ..of central atom. . .. .. .. .. .acid.. .. .. .. . ... sodium salt

    .. NO1(-1).. .. .. . ..... +1.. .. .. . .. ... . hyponitrous.. . .. sodium hyponitrite

    .. NO2(-1).. .. .. . ..... +3.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..nitrous.. . .. sodium .. .. .nitrite

    .. NO3(-1).. .. .. . ..... +5.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..nitric.. .. . .. sodium .. .. .nitrate

    .. NO4(-1).. .. .. . ..... +7.. .. .. . .. ... . .. pernitric.... . .. .sodium.. .pernitrate

    example... the chloric acid family.. HClO3

    .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .oxidation state

    .. anion.. ..... ..of central atom. . .. .. .. .. .acid.. .. .. .. . ... sodium salt

    .. ClO1(-1).. .. .. . ..... +1.. .. .. . .. ... . hypochlorous.. . .. sodium hypochlorite

    .. ClO2(-1).. .. .. . ..... +3.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..chlorous.. . .. sodium .. .. .chlorite

    .. ClO3(-1).. .. .. . ..... +5.. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. ..chloric.. .. . .. sodium .. .. .chlorate

    .. ClO4(-1).. .. .. . ..... +7.. .. .. . .. ... . .. perchloric.... . .. .sodium.. .perchlorate

    *********

    *********

    examples

    .. KNO2... ..potassium nitrite

    .. KNO3... ..potassium nitrate

    .. KCl. .. . .. potassium chloride... note the "ide".. note the monoelemental anion?

    .. MgSO2.. magnesium hyposulfite

    .. NaF.. . .. sodium fluoride

    .. Na2S.. . .sodium sulfide

    .. Al2S3.. . aluminum sulfide... note this is still a "mono-elemental" anion?

    *********

    so.. how to remember all this.

    .. (1) learn all the "ic" acids

    .. .. .. . H2SO4

    . .. .. . .HBrO3

    .. .. . .. H3PO4

    .. .. . . .HNO3

    .. . . .. .HClO3

    .. .. . ...etc

    .. (2) remember sodium hypochlorite.. .NaClO... .bleach

    .. .. ..remember hypochlorous acid.. . .. HClO

    .. . . .... now you know..

    .. . . .. ... .(a) ite and ous go together

    .. .. ... .. ..(b) ite and ous are lower oxidation states

    .. . .. .. ....(c) hypo is the lowest.. so per must be the highest

    ..and you can generate that first table.

    note..

    .. (1) some series have even oxidation states (like H2SO4) some have odd (HClO3)

    .. (2) there is a trend in periodic table family, but it's not exact.

    .. (3) some of the per- acids and salts don't really exist. you might need to google.

    *******

    that help?

    btw.. I don't know of any chemical compound named "magnesium oxate".

    .. . MgO is magnesium oxide

    .. . Mg(ClO3)2 is magnesium chlorate

    .. . Mg(NO3)2 is magnesium nitrate

    etc

    the is a magnesium oxalate.. that is the magnesium salt of oxalic acid.. that is an organic acid based on a different naming system

    .. ... . .O.. ..O

    .. ... .. .||.. ..||

    .. HO - C - C - OH.. . ..<=== oxalic acid

    magnesium oxalate

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxalate

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  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

    Generally (and it is quite general) Ionic compounds containing Hydogen are -ide and Oxygen compounds are -ate.

    Other non-oxygen compound eg Sodium chloride follow the hydrogen rule.

    It is Magnesium Oxide (there is no Magnesium oxate) you are looking at MgO: magnesium, the cation, first, followed by oxygen changed with the suffix 'ide' because oxygen is the sole ion and not part of a polyatomic group = magnesium oxide.

    • Dr W
      Lv 7
      4 years agoReport

      this is wrong. See my answer

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