12. A botanist studying the green pitcher plant (an endangered carnivorous plant native to the southern U.S.) measures the length of the “pitcher tube” (a long rolled leaf in which the plant catches insects) of 85 individual plants and concludes that the data can be usefully modeled by the normal distribution. Which of the following does NOT provide support for this conclusion?
a. The standard deviation of the data is smaller than the mean.
b. 58 plants (around 69%) have pitcher tubes within one standard deviation of the mean length.
c. The number of plants with pitcher tubes longer than the mean length is equal to the number with pitcher tubes shorter than the mean length.
d. Length is a continuous variable.
13. Upon discovering an unusually colored but otherwise similar-looking plant, the botanist wonders if it is a green pitcher plant or one of the other related species in the area (e.g. S. flava, S. moorei, etc.). Based on the information provided up to this point, which statistical test would be appropriate?
a. A one-tailed t-test.
b. A two-tailed t-test.
c. A one-tailed z-test.
d. A two-tailed z-test.
14. What are the critical values for one-tailed and two-tailed tests, respectively, when based on data from a sample of 8 individuals? (Assume a 95% or 0.05 significance level).
a. 1.895, 2.365
b. 2.365, 3.499
c. 1.860, 2.306
d. 2.306, 3.355
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