Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 5 years ago

英文文法問題(being pp)

1.When investing in stock, precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.投資股票時,必須採取預防措施,避免被市場謠言誤導。

Q:其中為何會有being,不定期to 加原V 又加一個Ving 然後又一個p.p..( to avoid being misled )

若我寫成precaution must be taken to avoid what are misled by market rumors.或precaution must be taken to avoid the thing which is misled by market rumors.

可以嗎?

因為在其它發問中有看到,what = the thing which 故想說是否能寫成上面二句

Update:

大家的解答都很有道理...我也不知哪個才正確...

不過Louis提到了一點,"Rumors can mislead you.所以只會產生Who are misled的問題,不會有What are misled的結果" 。那如果我改成precaution must be taken to avoid who are misled by market rumors.呢(將what改成who)醬可以嗎??

DaSa跟你的解答看起來有些許不同....但好像的確只有人,才能被誤導耶....???

Update 2:

謝謝諸位高手的指導,我大概能意會其中的意思了。

另外還有一些延申問題,也就是當閱讀文章時,有些句子由於省略"字"

讓句子看起來變成有二個動詞(如句中真的動詞和過去分詞)

有幾個問題想再請問一下,

1.那種句中的過去分詞,是否前面都有省略which is/are 或who is/are..之類的,而直接以過去分詞呈現被動態。

2.which 用在事物,who用在人,....那麼that呢?二者通用嗎?

3.何種情形下可省略這類的字(who,which,that),而在看文章句子時,有沒有技巧可以輔助知道本句有省略某些字。

Update 3:

謝謝DaSaGwa與Louis的指導,我想描述的問題1,例句如下

Many of the tax breaks provided to strengthen the domestic steel industry will be canceled once the new administration takes office.

1. 句中provided 前面是否省略了which are或that are?

Update 4:

The agency is strict about having progress reports submitted by the end of each week.

1.句中的submitted前面是否省略了which are或that are?

The board awarded all the team members involved in the development project with additional paid leaves and cash bonuses.

1.句中的involved前面是否省略了who are或that are?

Update 5:

我會有此一問,是在類似這類句子中,常分不清主要動詞為何(awarded,involved)

由於書上看到的句子,幾乎都是省略某些字的結果,所以有些過去式和過去分詞長一樣的字,就不知道他到底有沒有省略了某些字,或是他是以過去分詞代替形容詞(如有些字加了ed就成了形容詞,如involved sentence 中的involved就是adj,或created...等

Update 6:

問題二,二位高手的解答似乎都提到差異在"限定"與"非限定",那麼什麼是限定?什麼是非限定??用法有差別嗎?若我自己寫句子時,我要怎麼知道我要選哪種?

最後,感謝DaSaGwa的意見(也就是要我多用,接觸時間久了,自然就會變成一種本能反應),但這也是我最擔心的一點,如果不在乎文法,而一直使用錯誤的文法寫文章,時間久了,變成了習慣豈不更糟,英文有時候文法寫錯用錯了,句意也許就完全不同了。

8 Answers

Rating
  • 5 years ago
    Best Answer

    Your TWO revisions are correct, but WORDY. When you try to express an idea, your goal is to use less words and people can still understand.

    Your question involves 3 grammar points:

    (1)be + to V

    To avoid two main verbs (be and avoid) in a sentence, you use "to" to connect them.

    (2)avoid + V-ing

    This verb "avoid" usually follows with V-ing. The philosophy behind it is: when you try to AVOID something (or doing something). You avoid when this action is on-going. If you use "to V", it implies the action has NOT started yet.

    (3)passive voice

    Since the context tells you about not being misled by someone or something. Hence, you are in a passive situation (被動狀態), not an active (主動) one.

    With the above 3 situations combined, the most concise way is:

    be taken to avoid being misled

    The other verbs which follow with V-ing (gerund):

    Admit (confess), appreciate (being grateful), avoid (refuse), complete (finish sth), consider, delay, deny (ignore), discuss, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish, image, mind = dislike, practice, recall, recommend, suggest, understand.

    2014-09-30 05:57:54 補充:

    AP, I think free speech is one of the basic right of human being, so even though it might not be a good way to express, at least we understand what it means. That is what the language is all about.

    2014-09-30 06:26:03 補充:

    Too bad! AP! I didn't have you as my English teacher, otherwise, I would not flunk it all the time.

    2014-09-30 12:00:11 補充:

    Investment is done by YOU, so is the precaution taken by YOU. This is a statement made to warn "YOU".

    2014-09-30 12:03:12 補充:

    "to avoid being misled by market rumor" is an infinitive phrase, it is used to describe "precaution". This sentence is curtailed from:

    When YOU INVEST in stock, precaution must be taken (BY YOU) to avoid being misled by market rumors.

    2014-10-01 08:16:25 補充:

    但好像的確只有人,才能被誤導耶....???

    If you revert the sentence back the above:

    When YOU INVEST in stock, precaution must be taken (BY YOU) to avoid being misled by market rumors.

    It would be PEOPLE got misled !

    2014-10-01 08:20:20 補充:

    Look into this site and see whether all the subjects in the sample sentences are people or not:

    http://sentence.yourdictionary.com/mislead

    2014-10-01 11:58:49 補充:

    而直接以過去分詞呈現被動態。

    past participle (過去分詞) can be used in (1)perfect tense (2)passive voice (3)adjective.

    Hence, you need to know the CONTEXT of the sentence before you can tell what function it is.

    2014-10-01 12:00:57 補充:

    which 用在事物,who用在人,....那麼that呢?二者通用嗎?

    Yes, but "that" usually is used in a restricted clause (限定子句), who and which are used in non-restricted clause (非限定子句).

    2014-10-01 12:10:30 補充:

    何種情形下可省略這類的字(who,which,that)

    This question cannot be explained in a few words, let me refer to you a link that can get you started:

    http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar...

    2014-10-01 12:15:52 補充:

    In this forum, different people can give you different way to answer your question. However, one thing you need to make sure is:

    You try to learn English that you can use it in the real life.

    2014-10-01 12:19:38 補充:

    Having lots of grammatical rules being told here, ask yourself, when you actually converse with people in English, can you tell which one to use? I suggest you just go out and talk, don't care whether your grammar is correct! Sooner or later, you will eventually use English correctly.

    2014-10-01 12:24:33 補充:

    You have asked when to omit "that, which, who", in my #011 and #012 comment, I purposely imbed your question in my saying:

    one thing (that) you need to make sure is:

    can you tell WHICH one to use?

    2014-10-01 12:26:19 補充:

    My point is, once you use English long enough, these rules will become instinct to you, you don't THINK before you use. Hence, just keep using it, you will eventually become skillful.

    2014-10-02 09:19:52 補充:

    如果不在乎文法,而一直使用錯誤的文法寫文章,時間久了,變成了習慣豈不更糟

    If you DO pay attention to how native speaker use English, you will eventually correct your own mistake.

    2014-10-02 09:21:25 補充:

    英文有時候文法寫錯用錯了,句意也許就完全不同了。

    If you don't know when you use it wrong, then wait until the next time. There will always be someone who come to correct your mistake. Like here in YK+.

    2014-10-02 09:22:50 補充:

    I have used English daily for more than 30 years, I still get corrected by some of the masters here in YK+. One thing I can tell you is, once I get corrected, I will never forget again.

  • 5 years ago

    會有being應該是因為他前面有avoid

    avoid+being來使用 然後有pp只是因為他那句是被動用詞所以需要以be+pp來呈現

    還有你前面的問題 which是用物 who是人而that其實是最簡單又最不容易錯的用法

    因為兩者相通

    如果寫文章的話基本上都用that錯誤率會降低

    但是只用that也有條件的

    (1) 「先行詞」是「人和物」時:I saw a boy and a dog that were playing together in the park.

    (2) 「先行詞」前有 the only 時:Ed is the only son that will go with Mr. and Mrs. Smith.

    (3) 「先行詞」前有「最高級」時:This is the most delicious soup that he has (ever) had.

    (4) 「先行詞」前有 all, much, few, little, every(thing), some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), none 時:

    以上來原參考http://210.240.55.2/~t311/moe/engb5/b5grammar/b5re...

    Source(s): 自己 和網路
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  • 5 years ago

    你問的兩句並不 wordy 但和原句意思不一樣。

    會被誤導的是人 才可以用 misled

    需要避開的 what(the thing which) 是 misleading 誤導性的事物, 而不是被誤導的事物

  • 5 years ago

    1.When investing in stock, precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.投資股票時,必須採取預防措施,避免被市場謠言誤導。

    Q:其中為何會有being,不定期to 加原V 又加一個Ving 然後又一個p.p..( to avoid being misled )

    investing 由分詞構句而來

    還原句子應為

    When you invest in stock, your precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.

    省略主詞you, 主動動詞加ving, 之後變成

    When investing in stock, precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.

    precaution must be taken預防措施一定要被採取, to avoid去避免, being 是因為avoid這個動詞, 後面接動詞要加ving, 所以being misle 被 誤導的意思, 被動式 by market rumors.

    這樣了解了嗎?

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    5 years ago

    1.When investing in stock, precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.投資股票時,必須採取預防措施,避免被市場謠言誤導。

    這句的分詞構句的主詞是you,不是後面主句的主詞precaution,所以必須保留,寫作:When you investing in stock, precaution must be taken to avoid being misled by market rumors.

    Q:其中為何會有being,不定期to 加原V 又加一個Ving 然後又一個p.p..( to avoid being misled )

    to avoid是不定詞,當作「修飾語」,表示目的。xxx must be taken (in order) to avoid xxx

    being misled是被動態的「動名詞」,當作不定詞to avoid的「受詞」。所以其邏輯上的主詞用by market rumors帶出來。

    若我寫成precaution must be taken to avoid what are misled by market rumors.或precaution must be taken to avoid the thing which is misled by market rumors.

    可以嗎?

    不可以。因為you才是被誤導的「人」,作者認為you can be misled by market rumors.如果這裡用了「帶先行詞的關係代名詞what」當名詞子句的主詞,因為what = the thing which,在邏輯上是不通的,只有「人」才會「被」謠言誤導,「事或東西」無行為能力,是不會人或東西誤導的。

    因為在其它發問中有看到,what = the thing which 故想說是否能寫成上面二句

    己說明如上,是Rumors can mislead you.所以只會產生Who are misled的問題,不會有What are misled的結果。

    2014-09-30 22:23:59 補充:

    那如果我改成precaution must be taken to avoid who are misled by market rumors.呢(將what改成who)醬可以嗎??

    不可以。因為who是關係代名詞,但它的前面沒有名詞(某個人)可以受其修飾。

    此外,要避免的不是某個人。

    2014-09-30 22:30:58 補充:

    Precaution must be taken to avoid those who are misled by market rumors.

    文法通,但語意有問題:(大家)應當小心避開那些被市場謠言所誤導的人。

    2014-10-01 12:25:31 補充:

    1.那種句中的過去分詞,是否前面都有省略which is/are 或who is/are..之類的,而直接以過去分詞呈現被動態。

    Being told that he would no longer receive government money, the research had to look for another source of support.表示被動,要保留當助動詞的being

    (Being) tired with his work, he went to bed early.非被動,可省略being,留下原來當主詞補語的tired

    不必視分詞構句為省略了什麼

    2014-10-01 12:29:43 補充:

    2.which 用在事物,who用在人,....那麼that呢?二者通用嗎?

    當關係代名詞用時,that可指人或物,但屬限定性質的。which/who可以屬限定或非限定,用逗號做區別。非限定時,加逗號。

    3.何種情形下可省略這類的字(who,which,that),而在看文章句子時,有沒有技巧可以輔助知道本句有省略某些字。

    關係代名詞在限定性質的形容詞子句裡當「受詞」時,可以省略,且不影響語法和句意。

    2014-10-02 10:23:28 補充:

    規則動詞的「過去式」和「過去分詞」都是~ed字尾,所以分辨時需要看句子結構,由上下文的語意和邏輯等資訊來做判斷,究竟這個~ed是動詞的過去式、完成式(只是動詞結構裡的一部分)、或是一個修飾語。是修飾語的話,修飾的對象是誰,這決定這個過去分詞的詞性,所以它可能是屬形容詞或副詞。

    2014-10-02 10:29:51 補充:

    「修飾語」和「同位語」都有「限定」與「非限定」之分,非限定的要加上逗號。因為普通名詞泛指同類中的任何一個,需要加上修飾語加以標明。對象明確的名詞,就不能加以限定了。如my father就受到my的限定,如果再加任何限定,就成笑話。但my brother如果不是唯一的,就有可以接受修飾語的限定。

    坐在你旁邊的那人是誰?

    「坐在你旁邊的那」就是用來限定「人」的。

  • 5 years ago

    嚴格來說,這句話是不合英語文法的!若是改成:

    When investing in stocks, you must take precaution to ...

    就勉強可以!

    2014-09-30 02:44:48 補充:

    因為大西瓜 也很不愛文法 這次就勉強給他100分吧!

    2014-09-30 02:47:07 補充:

    > 若寫成precaution must be taken to avoid what are misled by market rumors.

    更差!

    > 或precaution must be taken to avoid the thing which is misled by market rumors.

    最差!!妳就罰跪3分鐘吧!

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