念祖 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 6 years ago

關於分詞構句簡化的問題

請問這幾句分詞構句要怎麼簡化或是還原??

搞不太懂幫忙講解一下><"

The man who stands in front of the house is my brother

The language which is spoken in England is English

Having been tp Japan before , he still wanted to go again.

He called us telling us how sorry he was.

3 Answers

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  • 6 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    The man who stands in front of the house is my brother

    = The man standing in front of the house is my brother

    who stands in front of the house 稱為關係代名詞「子句」,因為有主詞 who,有動詞 stands,而關係代名詞子句是形容 the man,動詞的現在分詞和過去分詞也可以當形容詞,所以可以直接把動詞 stands 改成分詞就行。 改的時候,記住主動用現在分詞,被動用過去分詞。 這裡 stands 是主動,所以改成現在分詞 standing。

    The language which is spoken in England is English

    = The language spoken in England is English

    跟上句一樣, which is spoken 是關係代名詞子句,可以簡化成分詞片語。這裡 is spoken 是被動,那就用過去分詞 spoken 即可。

    Having been to Japan before, he still wanted to go again.

    = Although he had been to Japan before, he still wanted to go again.

    = While he had been to Japan before, he still wanted to go again.

    現在分詞出現在句首,逗點之後才寫主要子句,稱為分詞構句。

    分詞構句有表示時間、表示原因等等,要從前後文判斷意思。這裡意思是 「雖然他已經去過日本,但他還是想再去」,如果不用分詞構句,這個 「雖然」 要寫出來,就是 Although 或 While。 又因為分詞構句 having been 是完成式,而且主要子句用 wanted 表示過去,而比過去更過去的完成式要用過去完成式,所以這裡要用 Although he had been to Japan 或 While he had been to Japan。

    He called us telling us how sorry he was.

    = He called us and told us how sorry he was.

    這裡 telling us 並不是形容,而是說他「打電話告訴」,打電話是一個動作,告訴也是一個動作,所以可以把這兩個動作 called 和 told 分別寫出來,但英語一個句子不能有兩個動詞,所以用對等連接詞 and 來連接這兩個動詞,就成為 called us and told us。

    2014-08-17 00:24:58 補充:

    第四句用 called and told 的寫法時,在平常實用上,重複的 us 可以省略,更順口:

    He called and told us how sorry he was.

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    6 years ago

    通常我們稱修飾名詞的V-ing ...為「分詞片語」(形容詞性質),修飾述部的V-ing ...為「分詞構句」(副詞性質)。

    分詞片語:participial phrase

    分詞構句:participial construction

  • 6 years ago

    [解答]

    Q1:The man "who stands" in front of the house is my brother.

    A1:The man "standing" in front of the house is my brother.(簡化)

    Q2:The language "which is" spoken in England is English.

    A2:The language "spoken" in England is English.(簡化)

    Q3:"Having" been to Japan before, he still wanted to go again.

    A3:"He had" been to Japan before, he still wanted to go again.(還原)

    Q4:He called us, "telling" us how sorry he was.

    A4:He called us, "and told" us how sorry he was.(還原)

    [說明]

    1.觀察上面四題幹需要簡化/還原的地方

     (也就是有雙引號的地方),你會發現一個規律:

     (1)需要簡化時,都是「1個主詞+1個動詞(無論有無變形),

      縮短成1個變形後的動詞」。

      Ex:Q1從who(主詞)stands(stand的第三人稱動詞),

        簡化成standing(動詞stand的變形)。

      Ex:Q2從which(主詞)is spoken(speak的被動動詞),

        簡化成spoken(動詞speak的變形)。

     (2)需要還原時,都是「1個因簡化而變形後的動詞,增加成

      1個主詞+1個動詞(根據主詞人稱和時態變形)」

      Ex:Q3從having(動詞have的變形),還原成

        he(主詞)had(動詞have的過去式)

        P.S. 使用過去式是因為逗號後也用過去式wanted,所以

          我們知道題幹是過去式。

      Ex:Q4是從telling(動詞tell的變形),還原成

        he(主詞)told(動詞tell的過去式)

        P.S. 使用過去式是因為逗號前也用過去式called,所以

          我們知道題幹是過去式。

    2. 這種簡化或還原的過程遵循下列原則:

     (1)主詞:簡化刪掉,還原加回去

      P.S. 還原時,根據題幹的其他部分判斷原來的主詞是誰。

     (2)動詞

      A.簡化

       a.若動作簡化前是主詞主動做的事情,一律改成ing字尾

        (也就是現在進行式用的字尾)。

        Ex:stands變standing(人站在那裡,是主動)

          had變having(他去過日本,是主動)

          told變telling(他打給我們,是主動)

       b.若動作簡化前是主詞被動做的事情,一律改成過去分詞字尾

        (也就是被動態的字尾)。

        Ex:is spoken變spoken(語言是被說的)

          was kidnapped變kidnapped

          (假如第三題的主角不是自願去日本,是被綁去的,

           就變被動了。Kidnapped to Japan before,變成

           He had been kidnapped to Japan before)

      B.還原

       a.現在式的句子檢查是不是單數第三人稱,決定動詞字尾要不要加s。

       b.非現在式的句子根據他的時態、主被動,

        還原成原來應有的文法。

        Ex:現在進行式,standing要變成is standing

        Ex:過去式,telling要變成told

        Ex:過去完成式,having been to要變成had been to

    2014-08-16 23:28:16 補充:

    1.剛忘了說,Q4的簡化涉及and這個連接詞和它前後的動詞called, told。在句子中用到兩的動詞,且可用and把它們串起來的情況下(比方說he called us, and told us...),你可以選擇省去and,然後把後逗號後的動詞分詞構句(比方說he called us, telling us...)。Q3不符合這個情境,所以還原之後不用加and。

    2014-08-16 23:31:07 補充:

    2.我的Q3解答有誤,LionEnglish才正確。題幹原意是「他雖曾去過日本,但還想再去」,故分詞構句省略後,把代表"雖然"的although/while刪去(就像Q4省去and),還原時應加回去。

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