Bonjour asked in 社會與文化語言 · 6 years ago

英文 時態問題

The dog didn't eat anything since yesterday.

The dog haven't eaten anything since yesterday.

哪一個正確?

6 Answers

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  • 6 years ago
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    The dog didn't eat anything since yesterday. (X: 時態錯)

    The dog haven't eaten anything since yesterday. (X: 時態對,單數主詞、複數動詞錯)

    The dog hasn't eaten anything since yesterday. (O)

    注意 since 表示過去某時間開始,「直到現在」,所以要用現在完成式。 第二句時態正確,但 dog 是單數,不可用 haven't,要用 hasn't 才可以。

    2014-08-03 01:29:33 補充:

    since 用完成式的問題,不論你是找牛津還是劍橋出版的文法書,幾乎每一本都會講到。

    since 之所以和完成式合用是因為 since 片語或子句都是 adjunct of "backward span" (A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, p. 536),是從 'now' 往後回朔的一段時間:

    2014-08-03 01:34:06 補充:

    (同頁:)"the span indicated by the adjunct reaches up the 'now' of primary concern to the speaker (which may of course be 'then' if it is a past time that is of primary concern)"

    這斷話換成時式表達,就是用現在完成式或過去完成式:

    2014-08-03 01:52:24 補充:

    因為指一段時間,所以用完成式。如果從上下文知道談論時間點在過去就用過去完成式,否則用現在完成式:

    He has worked in the same office since (he came here) in 1980.

    When I came to know him in 1982, he had worked in the same office since 1980.

    這就是為什麼牛津 Practical English Usage 說:

    2014-08-03 01:52:54 補充:

    In sentences with since (referring to time), we normally use present perfect and past perfect tenses in the main clause. (Practical English Usage, 3rd Ed., p. 522)

    2014-08-03 01:57:38 補充:

    為什麼說 normally 而不是絕對? 因為有時候動詞不一定合適用完成式來表示一段時間,有時候為了要表示一種事實,有時候為了強調一種改變等等。 語言不是一成不變,但也不能忽略最平常的用法,而隨便誤用。像版主的問題,

    The dog didn't eat anything since yesterday.

    很明顯就是錯的!

    你所舉的 forum 那句,也是有問題的:

    2014-08-03 02:11:47 補充:

    I felt some hope for the first time since this morning.

    因為 for the first time 的關係,不合適用完成式,用簡單式可以,但用過去式 felt 表示不是在講現在,指的是早上到今天的某個時間為止,since this morning 這樣短的 time span 內,又有個時間點是很奇怪的,沒有前後文做時間參考點,感覺上 since this morning 應該是到現在為止的。

    2014-08-03 09:35:02 補充:

    (漏字補充,意見005 up the 'now' --> up to the 'now')

    "the span indicated by the adjunct reaches up to the 'now' of primary concern to the speaker (which may of course be 'then' if it is a past time that is of primary concern)

    2014-08-03 23:53:26 補充:

    阿霹,

    看到英語,先不假設錯誤,而嘗試理解意思,這個態度是正確的,平日溝通也是如此,不會假設對方錯誤,而是嘗試理解。

    但你如果 google "didn't eat anything since yesterday" 會發現全 google 資料庫,只有 47 筆這樣用,其中沒有表示 「不想吃」,只有因為各種理由 「沒有吃」,所以除非在很明顯的情境中,看到狗沒食慾的樣子,否則不能這樣理解。

    談到 47 筆,就順便抱歉提一下,也算對版主有幫助:

    2014-08-04 00:05:17 補充:

    另一位回答者說他住在美國,美國英語比較常說 didn't eat anything since yesterday. hasn't eaten 不太實用,在台灣拿來應付老師用的。

    這種說法的精確性,從全 google 只有 47 筆 didn't eat anything since yesterday 就可驗證。

    相對於用現在完成式的 520,000 筆,我不知道什麼叫做「常用」。我敢保證的就是,在美國考 SAT, GRE, GMAT 的寫作能力,選 didn't eat anything since yesterday 就註定得不到滿分,最少錯一題!

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    6 years ago

    LionEnglish大師的解釋和分析讚!

  • 阿霹
    Lv 7
    6 years ago

    The dog didn't eat anything since yesterday.

    我直覺句子是想表達狗不想吃東西

  • Anonymous
    6 years ago

    這里很不錯aaashops。com老婆很喜歡

    伡哓傰偝凚

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  • 6 years ago

    I would say the first sentence is more practical and american speaking people use it more frequently.The second one should use "hasn't" if you want to use it. However, for Taiwan paper based purposes, your English instructor is expecting the 2nd

    sentence.

    When you use it, it sounds like you are referring to a random dog, in my daily usage, I would use "it didn't eat anything ..." or "That dog " or " My dog" to state whose dog it belongs or which dog I am looking at.

    For your reference only.

    Source(s): Living in US
  • 6 years ago

    第二句正確。

    因為在句中 since yesterday 的意思是指 從昨天開始直至現在這一刻,小狗也再沒有吃過東西。

    因此,用 present perfect tense 是合適的。

    2014-08-02 21:05:19 補充:

    是啊,第二句也有別的錯誤。

    以上 意見 001 只探討時態。

    2014-08-02 21:08:27 補充:

    英語獅 大大,我剛才也搜尋過,其實 since 也可用於 simple past tense。

    〔我不是指: ...past perfect... since ...past... 的情況〕

    請看看:

    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=20...

    其實是否有文法規則指出 since 的句子要用 perfect tense?

    2014-08-03 13:37:41 補充:

    感謝 LionEnglish 的用心解釋。

    你回應的一字一句我都有細看。

    009 那個的確要想想。

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