Mayhem
Lv 6
Mayhem asked in 社會與文化語言 · 5 years ago

關於新聞中的一些英文句子

1.But those that remained appeared to be heading next for the town of Horlivka, he said on his Facebook page, and were being confronted on the road by government troops.

其中的were being 是什麼時態?這樣寫代表了什麼含意?

2.能否講解一下過去完成式跟現在完成式的差異?

The door has been closed

The door had been closed

兩者有何不同?

另外能否在提一下未來完成式?該如何使用實在不是很懂

Update:

謝謝各位,我想再問一下過去完成進行式和未來完成進行式

如果過去完成式必須比較另一時間,那麼變成進行式會是什麼含意?

謝謝

Update 2:

Allen,

我可否把句子改寫成

before tomorrow the drama will have been over.

the things will have been done before this Friday night .

另外,能否提示一下, "下班前完成"該怎麼說?

謝謝

Update 3:

Star,

I had read this book since last Friday I bought it

這是個合法的句子嗎?

I had read this book since last Friday

這個也ok嗎?

假設以上文法都對,我們可否用現在完成式敘述同一件事情?

I have read this book for a while

感謝回答

Update 4:

Sloviansk had been considered a focal point of the rebellion, and was the military centre of the self­declared separatist People's Republic of Donetsk.

為什麼這句話可以用過去完成式?謝謝回答

Update 5:

謝謝回答,我把我自己的造句貼上來,可否幫忙確認?

When I realized it had been too late .(當我想通時,一切都太遲了)

After I heard the gun shot, the man had down.(在我聽到槍聲時,有個人已經倒下了)

Before he get it , we will have run away. (在他想通前,我們將早已遠走高飛)

Before you heard thunder, the light had been shown on the sky.(當你聽到雷聲時,早就已經有閃電了)

以上,謝謝指導

Update 6:

最後一個問題,過去完成式和未來完成式都只能使用When Before 或者 the moment ?

有無其他的詞彙可用?謝謝!!

3 Answers

Rating
  • 5 years ago
    Best Answer

    1. [he said on his Facebook page,] 視為插句。正文是:

    But those that remained appeared to be heading next for the town of Horlivka and were being confronted on the road by government troops.

    但剩下的那些人顯然接著前往Horlivka 城鎮,而(說話的同時)正在途中被政府軍隊擋下來(盤查).

    這叫做間接敘述,可以還原為直接敘述:

    He said on his Facebook page, "But those that remained appear to be heading next for the town of Horlivka and are being confronted on the road by government troops."

    他在臉書上說:『但剩下的那些人顯然接著前往Horlivka 城鎮,而現在正在途中被政府軍隊擋下來(盤查).』

    >>其中的were being 是什麼時態?這樣寫代表了什麼含意?

    這是be 動詞 的 過去進行式,有一個時間點,當時正在發生。

    2.能否講解一下過去完成式跟現在完成式的差異?

    The door has been closed. => 現在看到門已經關閉。

    The door had been closed. => 過去某時間點之前,那門已經關閉。

    另一時間點在同句,或上下文必定很清楚。譬如:

    The gate had been locked before Mary arrived. 瑪麗到達之前,大門已經鎖了。

    >>另外能否在提一下未來完成式?該如何使用實在不是很懂

    未來的某時間點,某事已經完成 == 某事需要未來完成式

    例句:瑪麗今晚回到這裏之前,NBC 夜間新聞就播完了。(她將觀賞不到)

    Before Mary comes back here tonight, the NBC Nightly News will have been over.

    未來時間點:瑪麗今晚回到這裏

    某事:NBC 夜間新聞

    動作:已經播完

    2014-07-08 18:12:58 補充:

    閣下有些問題宜另闢版面。我這裏集中回答(未來/現在)完成式相關。

    >>Before tomorrow the drama will have been over.

    可以,但不太好。tomorrow 不是單一的時間點。

    Before tomorrow the drama will be over. 即可。

    will be over 和 will have been over 意思差不多。

    我應該使用更典型的例子。

    2014-07-08 18:21:19 補充:

    典型未來式,未來完成

    He will have left when you come back. 你回來時,他會已經離開。(看不到他)

    He will leave when you come back. 你回來時,他就會離開。(還到看他離去)

    >>the things will have been done before this Friday night.

    可以。但簡單說 They will be done/finished by Friday night 即可

    2014-07-08 18:21:51 補充:

    典型未來式,未來完成

    He will have left when you come back. 你回來時,他會已經離開。(看不到他)

    He will leave when you come back. 你回來時,他就會離開。(還到看他離去)

    >>the things will have been done before this Friday night.

    可以。但簡單說 They will be done/finished by Friday night 即可

    2014-07-08 18:31:33 補充:

    >>Sloviansk had been considered a focal point of the rebellion, and was the military centre of the self­declared separatist People's Republic of Donetsk.

    had been considered:當時已經被視為

    這裏都是敘事,過去式為主。但是上下文敘事某時間點之前, (已經被視為) ,就使用 過去完成式。

    2014-07-08 23:40:55 補充:

    字數超過了。必須使用意見欄補充。

    2014-07-08 23:44:35 補充:

    When I realized, it had been too late. 正確

    但是簡單實用 When I realized, it was already too late. 即可

    be over 和 be late 本身含有[已經]結束,[已經]太遲,用不用完成式差異很小。

    (其它動詞使用完成式可能差異就很大)

    2014-07-08 23:49:27 補充:

    >>After I heard the gun shot, the man had down.

    (在我聽到槍聲時,有個人已經倒下了)

    改進:When I heard the gun shot, some man had been down.

    After 錯誤,要用 Before 或 When, 或 The moment

    後面 down 是形容詞,需要 be 動詞

    some man 是某人,有人

    the man 知道是誰

    2014-07-08 23:52:11 補充:

    Before he getS it , we will have run away. 正確,只差 he gets

    Before you heard thunder, the light had been shown on the sky.(當你聽到雷聲時,早就已經有閃電了)

    閃電用 lightning; thunder and lightning 雷電, 是常用組合詞

    2014-07-11 15:58:06 補充:

    完成式都只能使用When Before 或者 the moment ? 有無其他的詞彙可用?

    典型的完成式(某時間點之前,某動作已經發生/完成),顯然需要時間定位,除了When, Before, the moment 之外,最常用的是 By 或 By the time, 也是『在...之前』。

    非典型的完成式,如假設語法(與過去事實相反),和 No sooner than... (一...就...)的句型,也使用過去完成式,但意思完全不同。知識家有很多討論解析。

  • 5 years ago

    被動的進行式~~~~

    the government troops were confronting those (people) on the road

    現在完成式 = 從過去發生到現在 動作一直持續不斷/已完成

    到目前為止 門都還是關著的

    過去完成式 = 比過去更早開始發生 發生到過去~~(同上)

    (比較強調的是 "早就"發生)

    門早就被關上了

    未來完成式 = 到了未來的某個時間點 ~~~~~~~

    ~~have been closed by 2moro(通常會加個確切時間)

    到了明天 門就會一直關上

  • 5 years ago

    1. 時態在英文中是非常重要的,但因為中文沒有時態,所以我們學來會比較吃力,不過,也是有秘訣的,就是非常強調"前後早晚"一定要看得出來。

    was/ were being confronted 其實沒甚麼,就只是過去式的被動+進行式(being)而已。

    例如 Tina is polite. Tina (平常)是個有禮貌的人。

    Tina is being polite in front of her boss. (強調她在老闆面前"正"表現得很有禮貌。 )

    所以你問的那一句就是"在前往Horlivka時那當而,遭遇政府軍

    2. 請你將時態數線化, 過去----現在----未來

    既然很重視前後之分,

    He'll come tomorrow. (用 If 合併)

    I'll go with him.

    = If he comes tomorrow, I'll go with him. (這就是參考書都會寫的,甚麼副詞子句要用現在式代替未來式,你就想,這兩句分開寫時,因為都還沒發生,所以要用未來式。可式合併成一句時,不就有前後之分? 所以,較早發生的就用現在式)

    同理,

    I got to the station. (用 When 合併)

    The bus went away.

    = When I got to the station, the bus had gone.

    (had +pp 就過去完成式,"做完"一點關係也沒有,只是要描述發生在過去的兩件事理比較早的那一件)

    而 現在完成式,只是描述某一個發生在過去,持續到現在的狀態或動作而已(請你想像一條拋物線)

    ex. I have lived here for five years.

    Ian has known me since we were kids.

    當然,因為"拋物線"也可能是"從過去到過去" 這時就要用 had +pp (這其實是大家都有的生活經驗)

    ex. 內馬爾幾年到幾年在XX隊。

    林書豪幾歲到幾歲在哪裡念小學。

    ex. I had waited for hours when the doctor showed up.

    注意: 所以書上說"過去完成式不能單獨使用,"這是廢話(因它的用途就是要看出兩件發生在過去的事情的現後阿)

    Source(s): 自己
Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.