Both overnutrition and undernutrition affect energy metabolism, with overnutrition raising energy expenditure and undernutrition lowering it. Fever is a powerful stimulator of thermogenesis. In diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis, whether energy expenditure is increased or decreased often depends on how advanced the disorder is. Early on, when the greater protein turnover characteristic of these conditions is paramount, energy expenditure is increased. In addition, in diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and rheumatoid arthritis in which cytokines are released, the cytokines' thermogenic effect initially increases the metabolic rate. However, as the disease becomes more advanced and leads to cachexia, energy expenditure drops below normal. Acute conditions such as burns and trauma significantly raise energy expenditure, primarily by increasing sympathetic response and the release of catecholamines, which are powerful stimulators of energy expenditure.
- 呆子Lv 76 years agoFavorite Answer
無論營養過剩或不足都會影響新陳代謝，營養過剩就增加能量消耗而不足就減少，發燒就是有力刺激生熱作用。在很多病例如癌症, AIDS, 風濕性關節炎, 糖尿病等，無論能量消耗增加或減少需視病情發展。初其當大量蛋白質在身體轉換是最重要的就需增加能量消耗，其次當癌症, AIDS, 風濕性關節炎, 糖尿病釋放細胞激素時，此激素生熱作用副作用會增加新陳代謝率。然而當病情發展導至精神萎靡時，能量消耗會降至正常。嚴重的情況如燒傷腫瘤會增加能量消耗，主要是反應症狀及釋放兒苯酚胺
- 優氧化水草Lv 56 years ago
- 羅莉Lv 76 years ago
知識+是發問疑難的地方, 不可以當翻譯社來用, 版規禁止大量內容尋求翻譯, 超過5行就違規.