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Need help with history homework about Woodrow Wilson?
For each one of Woodrow Wilson's points:
Write the meaning in your own words
Why would this be included? (think back to the causes of WWI)
How did this point affect how the map of Europe was redrawn after WWI? (be specific)
Who would this please? Who would this displease?
These are his points:
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, ...shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas....
III. ...The establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims....
VI. The evacuation [by foreign troops] of all Russian territory and [freedom and independence for Russia.]
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations....
VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine...should be righted.
IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality....
XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life.... The Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
- HySt2812Lv 77 years agoFavorite Answer
I'd like to add =>some additions<= to some points, not to all of them.
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, ...shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. <= When in 1919 the
statesmen WILSON(US president)LLOYD GEORGE(UK), CLEMENCEAU(France) and ORLANDO(Italy) met to discuss
details of the Peace Treaty with Germany, there was no covenant, on the contrary - all of the final obligations that Germany had to accept without any discussion at all were decided by the winners of the war only.So WILSONs ideals did not become reality.(Germany had another, a democratically elected government,which expected to be treated in a fair way.
But to be fair vice versa: In case Germany had won the war, the other side would have treated in the same harsh way. One can
look at the German peace treaty with Soviet Russia dictated
at the beginning of 1918 in Brest-Litowsk.)
IV. As to armament: Germany's re-armament were hidden
by building places in the Netherlands, in Turkey and most of all
in the Soviet Union which offered the Germans test fields and
military instruction at their Red Army Special Weapons' Schools.
The points VI to IX. were fulfilled.<=
X./XI. ( according to the Peace Treaty with Austria, the
Treaty of Saint Germain )not in The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. .
=> The state of Yugoslavia [ yugo =Southern ] was created
by not allowing Austria to keep the Slavonian peoples in one
state.The self-determination by voting (Wilson's view) was expected to guarantee peace. Germany lost most parts of the
territory through the treaty of Versailles, but kept some other regions by voting following WILSON's self-determination, e.g. in Silesia and in the North.
XII: (according to the Peace Treat with the Ottoman Empire)
The Empire lost most of its large territory and became the state of Turkey.
XIII. Poland could celebrate at last the foundation of the
Polish state,free and independent between 1918 and 1939.
XIV. The League of Nations was founded,thus making WILSON's
dream come true. But the League of Nations could not protect
Europe and the world from the Nazi German and Japanese war machines. Allow me a personal remark: No idealistic thinking can fight against the evil, actions only can.