Can you offer insite on Marsilius of Padu and Defender of the Peace?
How did the Catholic Church act as a "world government" in Marsilius' day?
How is Marsilius upsetting the hierarchical structure of the Church?
How is Marsilius is the intellectual founder of conciliarism?
How may the arguments of Marsilius affect events in Henry VIII's England?
- spiffer1Lv 76 years agoFavorite Answer
When Pope John XXII was in office there were detractors who compared him to (or actually called him) 'the Anti-Christ'. Marsiglio (Marsilius) of Padua wrote a treatise entitled 'Defensor Paci' or 'Defender of the Peace' as a philosophical document and Pope John XXII ruled some five points within this treatise as 'heretical'. You will want to read more about John XXII and William of Ockham, John of Jandun and the Avignon Papacy during which there were several candidates all claiming to be the 'rightful Pope'.
John XXII had ruled from Avignon and had also made Avignon an epitome of 'excesses'. Along with the lavish spending he had been engaged in, he used some 'heretical' methods for gaining political and financial support. When Marsilius criticized the Pope/Papacy, he upset other members of the hierarchy of the Church of Rome.
'Conciliarism' (especially during Marsilius' day) relates to Councils and in particular officially convened Councils of the Church of Rome. Read about the Council of Constance/Pisa. Marsilius believed politically the State should hold more Primacy than the Papacy. He sided with having John XXII replaced by the 'anti-Pope' Nicholas V. He believed Church Councils made up of lay people and clergy should have primary power in making decisions about the polity of the Church in his time.Source(s): Bunson, Matthew (ed.) - OSV's Encyclopedia of Catholic History: Revised. Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor: 2004, pp. 237-238, 576 Livingstone, E. A. (ed.) - The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: Third Edition. New York: Oxford University Press: 1997, pp. 1042-1043 MacCulloch, Diarmaid - Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. London: Penguin: 2010, pp. 358-360 Norwich, John Julius - Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy. New York: Random House: 2011, pp. 210-215 Ozment, Steven - The Age of Reform, 1250-1550: An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe. New Haven: Yale University Press: 1980, pp. 130-253
- Chetak.Lv 76 years ago
Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; c. 1275 – c. 1342) was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine who practiced a variety of professions. He was also an important 14th century political figure. His political treatise Defensor pacis, a promotion of virtually unlimited monarchical power, especially in regards to the Church, is seen by some authorities as the most revolutionary political treatise written in the later Middle Ages. It is one of the first examples of a reasoned defense of caesaropapism in Western Europe.