John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore was the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony, from September 25, 1771 until just before the American Revolutionary War began in June 1775. During his term as Virginia's colonial governor, from 1771 to 1774, he directed a series of campaigns against the Indians known as Lord Dunmore's War. The Shawnee were the main target of these attacks, and his purpose was in strengthen Virginia's claims in the west, particularly in the Ohio Country.
From 1774 he was constantly clashing with the Colonial Assembly. He left Williamsburg on June 8, 1775 and had to hide on a British warship when the American Revolutionary War began. When he couldn't regain control of Virginia, he went back to England in July 1776.