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- MoravianEagleLv 78 years agoFavorite Answer
Austria-Hungary disintegrated and disappeared in history. The seeds of the disintegration was were sown in middle of the 19th century after Revolution of 1848 where German speaking minority (only 25% of population was German in entire monarchy) attempted to speak on behalf of everyone else. Non Germans like Czechs, Hungarians, and Italians prevented German Austrians in participating in German Congress in Frankfurt in 1848. National disunity was detrimental for defeating 1848 Revolution. Italian war in 1856-1859 caused the loss of northern Italy including Milan, and from that point, the Austrian Empire became secondary power in Europe. Austria was dualized in 1867 after it was defeated by Prussia during Six Weeks War of 1866. This war also caused further territorial loss in Italy with Venice.
Between 1867 till 1918, Austria had dual government unified by persona of one individual, Franz Joseph who ruled the country from 1848 till 1916. During his long reign, Austrian monarchy went through a huge demographic shift where higher birthrate among non-Germans and Hungarians caused these two dominant nationalities to lose control over the state. By 1910, Germans and Hungarians made about 40% of population, while rest was made of Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Romanians, and Ukrainians.
Austria-Hungary experienced significant economic boom between 1856-1914, but politically was unable to come up with the social and national changes to compromise. Franz Joseph was too old to do so, and his imperial court was surrounded by aged men who thought the same, while the non Germans felt no love to him. Entire political system rested at the hand a man who was in his mid 80's. Newer generations born after 1867 Compromise, did not feel any loyalty to him. Czechs disliked him, he never even accepted Bohemian crown as would be a normal for Hapsburg to bear a title of the Bohemian king. Southern Slavs, Romanians, and Italians were looking across the boundary to their own emerging kingdoms of Serbia, Romania, and Italy as motherland. Except Germans and Hungarians, the rest of the nationalities lacked loyalty to Vienna. The system was ripe for collapse which came with WWI.
During the WWI, all the economic, political, and social issues became apparent. Economy collapsed and with it also military structure, state bureaucracy, and public order. In the middle of chaos, Franz Joseph died, and state felt under the control of the neighboring Germany. Germans started to organize military, economy, and foreigner affairs for their own benefit, which caused centrifugal forces of other nationalities considering even own military actions against Vienna. While Czechs had ambivalent feeling toward Vienna in 1916, they outright refused to follow any German's orders from Germany at the front lines. Widespread sabotage became norm where military transports going through the territory to the front lines were stalled in Czech, Slovak, or Slovenian territories, sometimes even for weeks. People refused following German announcement,publication, or commands in pretext that they did not understand them. During the Austrian period, while German was official language, the officers were at least accustomed to local language and were willing to compromise. Sometimes multinational units had to work together as was the case in long history of the Imperial Austria. But under direct Prussian-German command, this did not work. Vienna became totally a satellite of Germany at the end of the war.
In 1918, the series of defeats of Germany signaled a shift in Vienna to seek own peace treaty with the France and Italy. However, at the same time, USA got involved in Central Europe where Wilson was a detrimental for international discreditation of Austria-Hungary,; and proposal ending the state under 14 Points for self determination of Czechoslovaks, Poles, Southern Slavs, and Romanians. To prevent approaching civil war in Austrian-Hungary, the inexperienced emperor accepted the federalization of the monarchy in October 1918 but this step was rejected by masses proclaiming either republic or own statehood. Czechoslovakia was born in October 28, 1918, followed by secession of Croatia two days later. By November 6, Austrian-Hungarian government was overthrown in revolution in Vienna and emperor fled. Austrian Republic was proclaimed. Between October 1918 and June 1919, various wars of independence defined successive nations from the ruins monarchy. The most brutal war was Revolution in Hungary, which spilled into neighboring countries and had to be defeated by combined Czechoslovak, Romanian, and Serbian military intervention leading to the occupation of Budapest by Romania. Austria-Hungary became a history.
- Anonymous5 years ago
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Hungary: Treaty of Trianon: PART II. FRONTIERS OF HUNGARY. ARTICLE 27. Austria: Treaty of St.Germain Part II (Articles 27-35): Frontiers of Austria Place names are referring of the official Austrian or Hungarian place names of Austria-Hungary. They were usually changed (nationalized) by successor states.
- ammianusLv 78 years ago
In 1918 at the end of WW1.
The Austro-Hungarian empire was essentialy dismembered by the victorious Allies at the end of WW1.