1. Nobody wants to except the Liberal Democrats. We've all seen from the current Eurozone crisis what a stupid idea it is. A common currency only works if every economy in it is equally strong, and if it isn't, it all goes pear-shaped VERY fast for any country in it with a weaker economy. This happened to Greece and now the rest of the Eurozone is having to bail them out. We tried it with the pre-euro ERM in 1992 and had to pull out very fast to avoid the collapse of the British pound. We don't want to do THAT again.
2. Nobody agrees with that. The NHS works extremely well and the only debate is on exactly how it should be run.
3. The parties are all so confused on this that you could find people in any party who would agree, but this is more left-wing. The current coalition (Conservative/Liberal Democrat) government has come up with some policies for more effective rehabilitation.
4. Conservative. This is current policy that they have enacted - allow immigration ONLY for special skills. It is a popular view that the UK is too crowded already but for more on this, see what I have to say below about the European Union.
5. More Conservative than anything. Other parties want taxes for the rich to be higher.
6. Liberal Democrat or Labour.
7. Conservative. This is what the current coalition government is doing to save money, thanks to the huge amount of borrowing and government debt the last Labour government left us with because it loved to spend money without thinking where it comes from.
8. Conservative. The Conservative government in the 1980s had a voucher scheme to allow smart and gifted children to attend private school. University tuition fees are a result of Labour widening university access to such an extent that now all school-leavers expect it - which means that free university education, which we used to have, is no longer possible, and having a degree isn't special any more, which defeats the point of going to university.
9. Everyone agrees on that.
10. Conservative. It's the most keen on keeping welfare to the minimum necessary and not making it so generous that people might prefer to live on welfare than go out and get a job, which is always the danger with welfare schemes.
11. Hard to say. Probably Labour. The Conservative Party leans more towards increasing sales tax so you only pay it if you actually spend money. Bear in mind that VAT (the UK sales tax) is not charged on food so you can get the basics of life without paying it. It is also charged at a reduced rate on gas (and I mean gas as a domestic fuel, not gasoline) and electricity. VAT is not so noticeable as sales tax is in the US, because by law it is required to be included in the displayed price, so what you see is what you pay. (The fact that sales tax in the US is added as an extra when you pay frequently comes as a rude shock to British tourists.)
12. Conservative. They know that making it easier for companies to create employment is the way to go, so they always look to reduce corporation tax and give other tax breaks whenever they can.
What you have omitted is the debate over European Union membership. This is rather a political hot potato at the moment, and the UK Independence Party, whose main policy is to leave the EU, has done rather well in recent English local elections. EU membership means that any citizen of any EU country can just move to the UK, and British people are getting rather worried about that - it's the reason for recent tightening up on your point 4. But on the other hand, it makes it far easier to trade with the rest of Europe - which is why we joined it in the first place - and there's a possibility that leaving will create more unemployment because it will be more expensive to export goods. So mainstream policy in all the major parties is to stay in the EU, though there is a tendency in the Conservative Party to want to leave and they've promised us a vote on leaving the EU in 4 years' time if they're still in power.
How do you vote, as an American? Would I be right in saying Democrat? The Conservatives are a kind of slightly more socialist Democrat party. It's traditionally the party of the aristocracy, that knows what capitalism is while understanding that the poor should be helped too. We have nothing to compare with the Republicans, Labour are definitely more socialist and keen on passing lots of laws and regulating life, and the Liberal Democrats are somewhere in the middle of Conservative and Labour. Labour started as the party of the trade unions and still has that tendency to think that the solution to any problem is to throw money at it, even if the money doesn't exist. I'm still trying to work out what the Liberal Democrats stand for.