Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 7 years ago

請求翻譯高手幫忙翻譯(刺激細胞)..20點謝謝

這篇文獻主要是以 壓縮力刺激細胞 但是它的Introduction 有些看不懂

請求高手幫忙翻譯這兩段 ( 請不要用網頁翻譯 或翻譯機 感謝)

Orthodontic tooth movement occurs during the sequential bone remodelling induced by therapeutic mechanical stress.1 External mechanical stress, such as physiological levels of compression and tension, applied to bones induces the formation of new bone.2–5 When mechanical stress is loaded on bone, osteoblasts respond in various ways.6,7 However, the effects of different magnitudes of mechanical stress on the osteoblast response and the optimal force for osteoblast differentiation are not fully understood. Recent in vitro studies revealed that an optimal compressive force induces bone formation via increased expression of bone sialoprotein,8 increased production of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and decreased production of BMP antagonists in the human osteoblastic cell line Saos-2.9

Generally, osteoblast differentiation is controlled by multiple transcription factors at various stages of osteoblast development.10 Recent studies have shed light on the sequential steps of the osteoblast differentiation pathway, and revealed that transcription factors are essential to this pathway.11 Two transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix, are essential for osteoblast differentiation during both intramembranous and endochondral bone formation.12–14 Alterations in the functions of various non-bone-specific transcription factors such as Msx2 and Dlx5 have also been demonstrated to affect osteoblast differentiation.15–18 Moreover, it has been reported that the novel zinc finger transcription factor AJ18 regulates osteoblast differentiation.19 The mechanisms that regulate the transcription levels are poorly understood. Therefore, this study focused on osteogenesis-related transcription

factors and examined the effect of compressive force on their levels of expression.

2 Answers

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  • 念泰
    Lv 6
    7 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    齒列矯正中牙齒的位移是源於治療上機械應力造成齒骨重塑而來.[1] 外來的機械應力,例如像正常生理程度上的擠壓與張力作用在骨骼上,會誘發新骨形成.[2–5] 當機械應力荷重於骨骼上, 成骨細胞會有數種不同的反應[2.6,7] 然而, 不同強度的機械應力所引發的成骨細胞的反應效果與成骨細胞分化所需的最佳強度仍無法完全理解. 近期體外研究揭露新骨形成所需的理想壓縮力,應用在成人母骨細胞株Saos培養時[2.9],會藉由骨涎蛋白BSP (bone sialoprotein)的表現增加[8],骨形器生成蛋白 BMPs(bone morphogenetic proteins)的製造增加,以及 BMPs拮抗物的製造減少來表現.

    大體上來說, 骨母細胞的分化在不同時期發育時有多種轉錄因子所控制的.[10] 近期的研究已初露曙光得知骨母細胞分化過程的一連串步驟並且知悉轉錄因子在這過程的必要性.[11] 兩個轉錄因子, Runx2 和 Osterix, 在膜內骨形成與軟骨內骨化這兩種機制下的骨母細胞分化過程都不可或缺.[12–14] 其他如非骨骼特異的轉錄因子 Msx2 和 Dlx5 的功能替代者也會影響骨母細胞的分化[15–18] 此外, 據報導新穎的鋅指轉錄因子 (zinc finger transcription factor AJ18)也有調節骨母細胞分化的能力.[19] 調節機制仍付之闕如,無從得知. 因此, 此項研究著重在骨骼生成有關的轉錄因子上並檢視壓縮張力對其表現產生的影響.

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  • 晚風
    Lv 5
    7 years ago

    牙齒矯正移動發生在療癒機械應力所誘發的後續骨骼重塑過程中。加諸於骨骼上的(像是生理機能級的壓迫和拉伸等)外加機械應力誘使新骨生成。當骨骼承受機械應力,造骨細胞有不同的反應。不過,不同量級的機械應力在造骨細胞反應上的影響和造骨細胞分化的最佳力道卻未被充分瞭解。…

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