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Econ - variable/fixed factor

讀到短期和長期生產時,發現很大困難,故在此求教。

根據教科書定義:

Variable factors are inputs whose quantities vary when output changes.

Fixed factors are inputs whose quantities do not vary when output changes.

我把重點放在"vary"上 : 如何Vary?

每講到兩件事物數量上的關係,總離不開數學語言:成正比,成反比,或成指數式成長/減少。

那麼,教科書上所說的要是如何vary?(以上說的哪種/哪些?)

比方說,有某個很奇怪的生產要素,當輸出增加時,它反而指數式減少,這可算是"可變生產要素"?

2 Answers

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  • 7 years ago
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    If a change in output leads to a change in the amount of a factor, it is a variable factor. Else, it is a fixed factor.

    e.g. 1

    Suppose a firm employs 2 units of labour while the output is 10/unit of labour.

    Now, if the output increases to 15/unit of labour but the number of labour drops to 1, then labour is still a variable factor. It is because the rise in output leads to a drop in number of labour. The drop of labour may be explained by the fact that the firm wants to raise capital (or other reasons).

    e.g. 2

    Suppose the rent paid by a firm is $10000 while its output is 100. When the rent rises to $20000 while the output remains 100, rent is regarded as a fixed cost. It is because the output does not change when the rent rises.

    Conclusion:

    1. change in output ->change in number of factor: variable factor

    2. change in output ->no change in number of factor: fixed factor

    The changes in output and the changes in number of factor are not necessarily in proportional. They can be inversely proportional.

    Source(s): me
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  • 7 years ago

    總之會變的就是variable factor。不理是增是減。

    有時law of diminishing marginal returns真的會有variable factor 增加後output減少的情況 (MP 就會是負數!)

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