The Somalia civil war began in 1991. When a large coalition of tribes ousted the government the country fell into chaos. The country was split up into mini city-states controlled by different warlords and tribes. In this horrible conditions, groups like extremist Islamist gained influenced.
To try and stem the violence in 1992, UN passed UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of UNOSOM I, the first mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.
In 1993, a mission by US special forces in a attempt to collapse one of the most violent militias in Somalia attempted to capture there leader, Aidid. The mission ended in failure and Aidid escaped. 18 soldiers were killed and 1 captured. The incident became known as "Black Hawk Down" because of the Black Hawks that were shot down during the raid.
In 1995, the UN decided the Peacekeeping mission was a failure because of the huge costs and casualties. They withdrew.
Islamic power started to increase during this time. Taking control of most of the southern part of Somalia. In 2006, the African Union decided it was time to intervene. With the assistance of Ethiopian troops, African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, the reconstituted Somalian military managed to drive out the Islamic Courts Union, the Islamic power in the South, and re-establish the government that was trying to be set up, the Transitional National Government.
With the Islamic Courts Union in disarray, a Islamic insurgency took its place in the name of al-Shabaab. In 2009, there terrorist campaign began, greatly destabilizing the region. The African Union continues to battle al-Shabaab to this day and taking cities they have lost over time. al-Shabaab has designated itself has a branch of Al-Qaeda and greatly loyal to its leadership. Using its area of influences in Somalia to contribute to the Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen.
I hope I helped, if you have any other questions or interests, please contact me at Randolph_Edward@yahoo.com